what is subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing?
what type of breathing is it when you wake up at night gasping for air and have to sit up or stand for relief?
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
what type of breathing is seen in left ventricular failure?
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
what is it when lungs remove CO2 at a faster rate than it is produced and CO2 levels in the blood decrease?
what is alveolar ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands?
what is it called when CO2 removal does not keep up with production and CO2 rises in the blood?
what is inadequate alveolar ventilation in r/t metabolic demands?
what are Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
periods of apnea - too long of a rest
what is this position called when someone leans forward and has their hands on their knees and why do they do it?
tripod position and it expands their lungs and helps them breathe
what is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia?
streptococcus pneumoniae - lobar pneumonia
when does fungal pneumonia occur?
what is acute inflammation of lower respiratory tract caused by microorganisms?
what is inflamed and thick mucous membrane, impaired cilia?
what is the max amount of oxygen you give to people with COPD?
why don't you want to give O2 to people with emphysema?
they will lose the incentive to breathe
what are some risk factors for emphysema?
alpha - 1 antitrypsin deficiency (genetic) and cigarette smoke
what happens to CO2 and O2 in emphysema?
CO2 increases and O2decreases
what is enlargement and destruction of alveoli, loss of elasticity, trapping of air during expiration that causes airway obstruction?
is emphysema acute or chronic?
where does asthma take place in the lungs?
what is intermittent bronchial inflammation, smooth muscle spasm, mucosal edema, increased thick mucous production that causes airway obstruction?
is asthma acute or chronic?
what are some causes of ARDS?
trauma - pneumothorax, tracheal tug, pulmonary infection (pneumonia - stop of air), aspiration, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass, shock, fat emboli (seen when have broken femur), and sepsis
what happens to the ABG's in ARDS?
decreased PO2 and patient does NOT get better even with increased FiO2!
what part of the body uses the most O2?
what are some S&S's of ARDS?
tachypnea (rate of at least 24), SOB/dyspnea, retractions (accessory muscle use), tachycardia, and decreased pulmonary compliance
what are some manifestations of pulmonary edema?
crackles, cyanosis, dyspnea, sputum is frothy and pink, and left-sided heart failure - (comes straight from the lung)
what causes pulmonary edema?
heart disease that increases pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, ARDS or inhalation of toxic gases that injure capillaries and increases permeability, or blockage of lymphatic vessels by CHF
what is excess water in the lungs?
what is asbestosis?
inhalation of asbestos
what is anthracosis?
inhalation of coal dust - black lung
what is silicosis?
inhalation of silica - working in rock correys
what are 3 things that cause pneumoconiosis?
silicosis, anthracosis, and asbestosis
what is a complication of pneumoconiosis in lungs?
inability to fill and empty
what is fibrous/scarred tissue or nodule in lungs?
what are 3 causes of bronchiectasis?
obstruction of airway, atelectasis, and infection
what is persistent abnormal dilation of bronchi?
what is it when collapse of lung tissue is caused by external pressure from tumor, fluid, or air in pleural space in alveoli?
what does surfactant do?
help lungs expand
is the air in your lungs controlled by negative or positive pressure and why?
negative, keeps lungs expanded
what is the cause of obstruction in emphysema?
what is loss of elasticity and when the alveoli look like raisons and lose honeycomb aspect?
what is a hemopneumothprax?
air and blood
what is a complication of flail chest?
hemothorax - build up of blood in chest wall and pleura
what disorder of the chest wall and pleura is caused by fracture of ribs or sternum?
name 3 three examples that can cause hypoxemia:
decreased O2 content of inspired gas such as with high altitudes, hypoventilation with emphysema, and atelectasis
what is hypoxemia?
reduced oxygenation of arterial blood
what is O2 and CO2 Tension?
O2 and CO2 pressures
what is bulbous enlargement of the end of the finger and what is it caused by?
clubbing, chronic hypoxia
what does decreased arterial oxygenation or decreased cardiac output cause?
name the 4 phases of the inflammatory response in pneumococcal pneumonia:
consolidation, stage of red hepatization, gray hepatization, resolution
which type of pneumonia involves the lobes and has 4 phases of inflammatory response?
what else can pap smears detect?
lung cancer cells
where do lung cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas arise from?
epithelium of respiratory tract
what causes laryngeal cancer?
smoking tobacco, increased risk when combine with alcohol consumption
is lip cancer more common in men or women?
what causes lip cancer?
exposure to sun, wind, cold over the years
what are some manifestations of cor pulmonale?
second heart sound or closure of pulmonic valve accentuated and tricuspid valve murmur
what is right-sided heart failure because of primary pulmonary disease and long-standing pulmonary hypertension?
what are some manifestation of pulmonary hypertension?
right ventricle hypertrophies on X-ray or EKG, JVD, fatigue, for pulmonale, tachypnea, and dyspnea on exertion
what is pulmonary artery pressure elevated by increased blood flow in pulmonary circulation?
if a patient has right-sided heart failure, what did it start with?
this is caused by blood-borne substances from venous stasis in legs, vessel injury, or hypercoagulation lodge in a branch of pulmonary artery and obstructs flow to lung parenchyma (lung tissues)?
what is a disrupt of blood flow through the lungs by occluding blood vessels, increase pulmonary vascular resistance, and destroy of vascular bed
pulmonary vascular disease
what are some symptoms of TB?
night sweats, weakness, fever, dry cough, weight loss, GI symptoms
what are some symptoms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis?
meningitis, lymph nodes, bone and joint sites, GI sites
what are some symptoms of dormant tuberculosis?
cough with increasing mucous, coughing of blood
what is a symptom of tuberculosis pleuritis?
what is a symptom of primary pulmonary tuberculosis?
what is a symptom of established pulmonary tuberculosis?
where is TB more commonly found in the population?
dormant - jail, college students, healthcare workers, immunosuppressed, traveling
what type of scar forms after TB has infected the lungs?
what is caseation necrosis in TB?
infected tissues within the tubercle die and form a cheese like material
what type of necrosis results from TB?
how is TB transmitted?
is TB capable of invading other body systems?
is Mycobacterium tuberculosis an acid-fast bacillus?
what microorganism causes TB?
aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis
what phase of the inflammatory response in pneumonia is when increasing numbers of macrophages appear in alveolar spaces, neutrophils degenerate, fibrin threads and bacteria are digested? removed by lymphatic vessels
phase 4 - resolution
what type of cancer cell has a very rapid growth rate, very early metastasis to mediastinum or distally to lung?
small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
what cancer cell has rapid growth rate, early and widespread metastasis?
large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
what type of cancer cell has a slow growth rate and late metastasis?
squamous cell carcinoma
what type of cancer cell has a moderate growth rate and early metastasis?
what are the symptoms of aplastic anemia?
typical symptoms, petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, bleeding, and infection
what causes aplastic anemia?
radiation, viruses, lesions in red bone marrow that depress its action - quit producing
what is aplastic anemia associated with?
what is normocytic-normochromic and what 4 anemias are are classified under it?
normal size and normal hemaglobin. aplastic anemia, posthemorrhagic anemia, hemolytic anemia, and anemia of chronic disease (ACD)
what are the symptoms of sideroblastic anemia?
typical symptoms (fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor), mild hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly
what type of anemia is characterized by decreased heme synthesis (genetic), acquired from lead, chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), antitubercular drugs?
what are some social/physical risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia?