Patho Exam 3 respiratory

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emmylou
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288734
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Patho Exam 3 respiratory
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2014-11-10 21:13:26
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respiratory pathophysiology
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Nursing
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  1. what is subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing?
    dyspnea
  2. what type of breathing is it when you wake up at night gasping for air and have to sit up or stand for relief?
    Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  3. what type of breathing is seen in left ventricular failure?
    paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  4. what is it when lungs remove COat a faster rate than it is produced and COlevels in the blood decrease?
    hypocapnia
  5. what is alveolar ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands?
    hyperventilation
  6. what is it called when COremoval does not keep up with production and COrises in the blood?
    hypercapnia
  7. what is inadequate alveolar ventilation in r/t metabolic demands?
    hypoventilation
  8. what are Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
    periods of apnea - too long of a rest
  9. what is this position called when someone leans forward and has their hands on their knees and why do they do it?
    tripod position and it expands their lungs and helps them breathe
  10. what is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia?
    streptococcus pneumoniae - lobar pneumonia
  11. when does fungal pneumonia occur?
    immunosuppressed
  12. what is acute inflammation of lower respiratory tract caused by microorganisms?
    pneumonia
  13. what is inflamed and thick mucous membrane, impaired cilia?
    chronic bronchitis
  14. what is the max amount of oxygen you give to people with COPD?
    2 liters
  15. why don't you want to give Oto people with emphysema?
    they will lose the incentive to breathe
  16. what are some risk factors for emphysema?
    alpha - 1 antitrypsin deficiency (genetic) and cigarette smoke
  17. what happens to CO2 and O2 in emphysema?
    COincreases and O2 decreases
  18. what is enlargement and destruction of alveoli, loss of elasticity, trapping of air during expiration that causes airway obstruction?
    emphysema
  19. is emphysema acute or chronic?
    chronic
  20. where does asthma take place in the lungs?
    bronchi
  21. what is intermittent bronchial inflammation, smooth muscle spasm, mucosal edema, increased thick mucous production that causes airway obstruction?
    asthma
  22. is asthma acute or chronic?
    acute
  23. what are some causes of ARDS?
    trauma - pneumothorax, tracheal tug, pulmonary infection (pneumonia - stop of air), aspiration, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass, shock, fat emboli (seen when have broken femur), and sepsis
  24. what happens to the ABG's in ARDS?
    decreased PO2 and patient does NOT get better even with increased FiO2!
  25. what part of the body uses the most O2?
    the brain
  26. what are some S&S's of ARDS?
    tachypnea (rate of at least 24), SOB/dyspnea, retractions (accessory muscle use), tachycardia,  and decreased pulmonary compliance
  27. what are some manifestations of pulmonary edema?
    crackles, cyanosis, dyspnea, sputum is frothy and pink, and left-sided heart failure - (comes straight from the lung)
  28. what causes pulmonary edema?
    heart disease that increases pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, ARDS or inhalation of toxic gases that injure capillaries and increases permeability, or blockage of lymphatic vessels by CHF
  29. what is excess water in the lungs?
    pulmonary edema
  30. what is asbestosis?
    inhalation of asbestos
  31. what is anthracosis?
    inhalation of coal dust - black lung
  32. what is silicosis?
    inhalation of silica - working in rock correys
  33. what are 3 things that cause pneumoconiosis?
    silicosis, anthracosis, and asbestosis
  34. what is a complication of pneumoconiosis in lungs?
    inability to fill and empty
  35. what is fibrous/scarred tissue or nodule in lungs?
    pneumoconiosis
  36. what are 3 causes of bronchiectasis?
    obstruction of airway, atelectasis, and infection
  37. what is persistent abnormal dilation of bronchi?
    bronchiectasis
  38. what is it when collapse of lung tissue is caused by external pressure from tumor, fluid, or air in pleural space in alveoli?
    atelectasis
  39. what does surfactant do?
    help lungs expand
  40. is the air in your lungs controlled by negative or positive pressure and why?
    negative, keeps lungs expanded
  41. what is the cause of obstruction in emphysema?
    mucous
  42. what is loss of elasticity and when the alveoli look like raisons and lose honeycomb aspect?
    emphysema
  43. what is a hemopneumothprax?
    air and blood
  44. what is a complication of flail chest?
    hemothorax - build up of blood in chest wall and pleura
  45. what disorder of the chest wall and pleura is caused by fracture of ribs or sternum?
    flail chest
  46. name 3 three examples that can cause hypoxemia:
    decreased Ocontent of inspired gas such as with high altitudes, hypoventilation with emphysema, and atelectasis
  47. what is hypoxemia?
    reduced oxygenation of arterial blood
  48. what is O and COTension?
    O2 and CO2 pressures
  49. what is bulbous enlargement of the end of the finger and what is it caused by?
    clubbing, chronic hypoxia
  50. what does decreased arterial oxygenation or decreased cardiac output cause?
    cyanosis
  51. name the 4 phases of the inflammatory response in pneumococcal pneumonia:
    consolidation, stage of red hepatization, gray hepatization, resolution
  52. which type of pneumonia involves the lobes and has 4 phases of inflammatory response?
    pneumococcal pneumonia
  53. what else can pap smears detect?
    lung cancer cells
  54. where do lung cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas arise from?
    epithelium of respiratory tract
  55. what causes laryngeal cancer?
    smoking tobacco, increased risk when combine with alcohol consumption
  56. is lip cancer more common in men or women?
    men
  57. what causes lip cancer?
    exposure to sun, wind, cold over the years
  58. what are some manifestations of cor pulmonale?
    second heart sound or closure of pulmonic valve accentuated and tricuspid valve murmur
  59. what is right-sided heart failure because of primary pulmonary disease and long-standing pulmonary hypertension?
    cor pulmonale
  60. what are some manifestation of pulmonary hypertension?
    right ventricle hypertrophies on X-ray or EKG, JVD, fatigue, for pulmonale, tachypnea, and dyspnea on exertion
  61. what is pulmonary artery pressure elevated by increased blood flow in pulmonary circulation?
    pulmonary hypertension
  62. if a patient has right-sided heart failure, what did it start with?
    pulmonary hypertension
  63. this is caused by blood-borne substances from venous stasis in legs, vessel injury, or hypercoagulation lodge in a branch of pulmonary artery and obstructs flow to lung parenchyma (lung tissues)?
    emboli
  64. what is a disrupt of blood flow through the lungs by occluding blood vessels, increase pulmonary vascular resistance, and destroy of vascular bed
    pulmonary vascular disease
  65. what are some symptoms of TB?
    night sweats, weakness, fever, dry cough, weight loss, GI symptoms
  66. what are some symptoms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis?
    meningitis, lymph nodes, bone and joint sites, GI sites
  67. what are some symptoms of dormant tuberculosis?
    cough with increasing mucous, coughing of blood
  68. what is a symptom of tuberculosis pleuritis?
    chest pain
  69. what is a symptom of primary pulmonary tuberculosis?
    structural abnormalities
  70. what is a symptom of established pulmonary tuberculosis?
    productive cough
  71. where is TB more commonly found in the population?
    dormant - jail, college students, healthcare workers, immunosuppressed, traveling
  72. what type of scar forms after TB has infected the lungs?
    collagenous scar
  73. what is caseation necrosis in TB?
    infected tissues within the tubercle die and form a cheese like material
  74. what type of necrosis results from TB?
    caseation necrosis
  75. how is TB transmitted?
    airborne droplets
  76. is TB capable of invading other body systems?
    Yes
  77. is Mycobacterium tuberculosis an acid-fast bacillus?
    Yes
  78. what microorganism causes TB?
    aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  79. what phase of the inflammatory response in pneumonia is when increasing numbers of macrophages appear in alveolar spaces, neutrophils degenerate, fibrin threads and bacteria are digested? removed by lymphatic vessels
    phase 4 - resolution
  80. what type of cancer cell has a very rapid growth rate, very early metastasis to mediastinum or distally to lung?
    small cell (oat cell) carcinoma
  81. what cancer cell has rapid growth rate, early and widespread metastasis?
    large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
  82. what type of cancer cell has a slow growth rate and late metastasis?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  83. what type of cancer cell has a moderate growth rate and early metastasis?
    adenocarcinoma
  84. what are the symptoms of aplastic anemia?
    typical symptoms, petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, bleeding, and infection
  85. what causes aplastic anemia?
    radiation, viruses, lesions in red bone marrow that depress its action - quit producing
  86. what is aplastic anemia associated with?
    pancytopenia
  87. what is normocytic-normochromic and what 4 anemias are are classified under it?
    normal size and normal hemaglobin. aplastic anemia, posthemorrhagic anemia, hemolytic anemia, and anemia of chronic disease (ACD)
  88. what are the symptoms of sideroblastic anemia?
    typical symptoms (fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor), mild hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly
  89. what type of anemia is characterized by decreased heme synthesis (genetic), acquired from lead, chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), antitubercular drugs?
    sideroblastic
  90. what are some social/physical risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia?
    poverty, alcohol abuse, poor dentition, candle burning, GIT disease, and depression
  91. what are some dietary risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia?
    low-iron, low vitamin C, excess phytate, excess tea/coffee, fad diets
  92. what are some demographic risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia?
    elderly, teenager, female, immigrant, aborigine, and widower
  93. what are the symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia?
    the typical symptoms (fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor)
  94. who are the most at risk for iron-deficiency anemia?
    individuals of all ages with minor chronic blood loss
  95. it is caused by excess bleeding that depletes iron, poor diet, and possible H. pylori infection... what is it???
    iron-deficiency anemia
  96. what does microcytic-hypochromic mean and what 2 types of anemia are classified under it?
    abnormally small and low hemaglobin concentration. iron deficiency and siberoblastic

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