BUS 200 Ch. 10

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BUS 200 Ch. 10
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  1. Motivation
    Consists of the psychological processes that induce people to pursue goals
  2. Extrinsic Reward
    The payoff, such as money or recognition, a person receives from others for performing a particular task
  3. Intrinsic Reward
    The satisfaction, such as the feeling of accomplishment, a person receives from performing the particular task itself
  4. 5 reasons its important to motivate employees
    • join
    • show up
    • stay
    • perform 
    • do extra
  5. Scientific management
    • Fredrick Taylor
    • Emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers
  6. Frederick W. Taylor's 4 principles to increasing worker productivity
    • Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task
    • carefully select workers with the right abilities to perform the task 
    • Give those workers the training and incentives to do the task and to use proper work methods in doing so 
    • Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and to help workers to do their jobs
  7. Time Motion Studies
    Frederick Taylor broke down each worker's job into basic physical motions and then trained workers to use the methods of their best-performing coworkers
  8. Hawthorne Effect
    employees work harder if they received added attention and if they thought managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them
  9. 5 needs in Maslow's hierarchy
    • Self-actualization need
    • Esteem Need
    • Social need
    • Safety need
    • Physiological need
  10. Human relations movement
    Proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity
  11. Frederick Herzberg's Two factor Theory
    • Proposed that work dissatisfaction and satisfaction arise from two different factors 
    • work satisfaction from higher level needs he called motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from lower-level needs he called hygiene factors
  12. Motivating Factors
    factors associated with job satisfaction- such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement- all of which affect the rewards of work performance
  13. hygiene factors
    factors associated with job dissatisfaction- such as salary, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policy- all of which affect the job environment in which people work
  14. job simplification
    involves reducing the number of tasks a worker performs
  15. 2 techniques to fitting jobs to people
    • Job enlargement
    • job enrichment
  16. Job enlargement
    consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to improve employee satisfaction, motivation, and quality of production
  17. Job rotation
    • Employee is moved from one job to another
    • help alleviate boredom
  18. Job enrichment
    • consists of creating a job with motivating factors such as recognition, responsibility, achievement, stimulating work, and advancement
    • finding the right fit between a person and job
  19. Unlike job enlargement, which gives employees additional tasks of similar difficulty, job enrichment entails giving employees more responsibility
  20. Theory X (McGregor)
    assumes workers to be irresponsible, resistant to change, lacking in ambition, hating work, and preferring to be led rather than to lead
  21. Theory Y
    • makes the positive assumption that workers are capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, and self control and of being imaginative and creative
    • supports offering intrinsic awards
  22. empowerment
    management makes employees more involved in their jobs by giving them the authority and responsibility to make decisions
  23. Theory Z (William Ouchi)
    motivational approach that emphasizes involving employees at all levels, giving them long term job security, allowing collective decision making, emphasizing slow evaluation an promotion procedures, and treating workers like family
  24. Theory Z considers how employees view management
  25. Reinforcement Theory
    • suggest that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
    • Positive Reinforcement
    • Negative Reinforcement
    • Extinction
    • Punishment
  26. Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)
    proposes that people are motivated by how strongly they want something and how likely they think they are to get it
  27. Equity Theory
    • focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others
    • Contributions
    • returns
    • comparisons
  28. 3 lessons learned from the Equity Theory
    • Employees' Perceptions Matter
    • Employees' Participation Helps
    • Having an appel process helps
  29. Goal setting Theory
    proposes that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable
  30. Management by objectives (MBO by Peter Drucker)
    • manager and employee jointly set objectives for the employee
    • manager develops action plan to achieve this objective
    • manager and employee review performance
    • manager rewards employee according to results
  31. Management by Objectives (MBO) emphasizes on converting general objectives into specific ones for all members of an organization
    Purpose is to motivate rather than to control
  32. 5 core job characteristics that affect workers motivation and performance
    • Skill variety 
    • Task identity 
    • Task significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  33. Principle of Motion Economy
    • Gilbreth husband and wife
    • Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions
  34. Fitting people to jobs
    job simplification
  35. Fitting Jobs to People
    job enlargement and job enrichment
  36. Characteristics of Theory Z
    • Long term employment
    • Collective decision making
    • Collective responsibility
    • Slow evaluation and promotion
    • informal control with formalized control measures
    • Moderately specialized career paths
    • Concern for the total person incl
    • uding their family

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