Nutrition 7

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bobbie2013
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Nutrition 7
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2010-08-04 11:09:40
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  1. Of the components listed below,______________is/are not part of the ATP molecule

    a) adenine

    b) ribose

    c) glucose

    d) three phosphate
    c) glucose
  2. ATP functions as the major energy carrier molecule in body cells by trapping a large amount of energy in its ____________bonds
    -phosphate
  3. In glycolysis, glucose is converted to

    a) pyruvate

    b) acetyl-CoA

    c) glycogen

    d) fat
    a) pyruvate
  4. The TCA cycle is initiated by the reaction

    a) pyruvate + oxaloacetate > acetyl-CoA

    b) pyruvate + acetyl-CoA > citric acid

    c) acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate > citric acid

    d) acetyl-CoA + citric acid > oxaloacetate
    c) acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate > citric acid
  5. The end products of glucose catabolism are

    a) ATP, ADP, and NAD

    b) ATP, CO2, and O2

    c) NAD, FAD, and H2O

    d) ATP, CO2, and H2O
    d) ATP, CO2, and H2O
  6. Most of the energy contained in glucose is released through the metabolic pathway of _________
    • -TCA cycle
    • -CAC cycle
    • -Krebs cycle
  7. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Acetyl-CoA is the "pivotal" point of the TCA cycle because it can either be used to make glucose or to produce energy
    False

    Acetyl-CoA is a 2-carbon molecule, which cannot be converted back to pyruvate (a 3-carbon molecule), and so it cannot make glucose. It is the "pivotal" point of the TCA cycle because other substance that are convertible to acetyl-CoA can enter the energy production cycle or be converted to fats for storage at this point
  8. Fatty acids are catabolized to produce energy by

    a) sequential breakdown to form acetyl-CoA, which then enters the TCA cycle

    b) beta-oxidation to form pyruvate, which then enters the TCA cycle

    c) hydrolysis to form glycerol, which then enters glycolysis

    d) beta-oxidation to form oxaloacetate, which then enters the TCA cycle
    a) sequential breakdown to form acetyl-CoA, which then enters the TCA cycle
  9. About_________percent of the weight of a molecule of trigylceride consisting of long-chain fatty acids can be converted to glucose
    -5%
  10. The nitrogen from excess protein in the diet is excreted as

    a) ammonia

    b) water

    c) amino acids

    d) urea
    d) urea
  11. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    As one increases protein consumption, one should also increase the intake of water
    True
  12. Urea is synthesized by the _______cells, then released into the blood
    -liver
  13. After depletion of glycogen stores, lean body tissues break down to provide 90% of the needed___________during the first few days of a fast
    -glucose
  14. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Ketone bodies are abnormal metabolities produced during fasting, and are harmful if they get into the bloodstream
    False

    Ketone bodies are normal metabolites of the body. At low levels of production, the body can metabolize the ketone bodies. In conditions of fasting or in diabetes, ketone production can increase beyond the body's ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The result is ketosis, which, in its mild form can cause appetite loss, increased urination, and nausea; or in its severe form can cause acidosis, excessive tissue water loss, a decline in blood pressure, and the fatal collapse of the ciculatory system
  15. Ketones are produced when

    a) there is insufficient glycerol to combine with fatty acids to produce triglycerides

    b) there are not enough fats in the diet

    c) a person eats too much sugar

    d) there is an overabundance of acetyl-CoA which cannot enter the TCA cycle
    d) there is an overabundance of acteyl-CoA which cannot enter the TCA cycle
  16. A cup (250 ml) of 2% milk contains 12 grams of carbohydrates, 8 grams of lipids, and 4 grams of proteins. Calculate the physiological fuel value of the milk
    • (12 g carbohydate x 4 kcal/g) + (8 g fat x 9 cal/g)
    • + (4 g protein x 4 kcal/g) =(48 + 72 + 16) =136
  17. The physiological fuel value of a food is

    a) the total amount of energy it contains

    b) the amount of energy determined by a bomb calorimeter

    c) the amount of energy available to the body

    d) the amount of energy expended by the body
    c) the amount of energy available to the body
  18. A meal that is high in __________will produce the greatest satiety

    a) fat

    b) carbohydrate

    c) protein

    d) fibre
    c) protein
  19. Basal metabolic rate

    a) is the maximum amount of energy required to maintain basic life processes

    b) increases with advancing age

    c) is measured under a controlled set of conditions

    d) accounts for less than 50% of the total energy requirement of most individuals
    c) is measured under a controlled set of conditions
  20. Of the activities listed below, only___________is not part of basal metabolism

    a) digestion

    b) respiration

    c) blood circulation

    d) osmotic work by cells
    a) digestion
  21. The average decline in total energy expenditure is about ___________ percent for every decade beyond 30 years of age
    -5%
  22. The daily BMR for a yound adult male whose body weight is 70 kg would be approximately

    a) 70 kcal

    b) 700 kcal

    c) 1680 kcal

    d) 1840 kcal
    c) 1680 kcal
  23. The lowest mortality rates are associated with a BMI of about

    a) 22-25

    b) 16-18

    c) 20-25

    d) 20-22
    d) 20-22
  24. The average percentage of body fat in women of heathly weight is

    a) 3-7%

    b) 10-20%

    c) 20-30%

    d) 30-35%
    c) 20-30%
  25. The most accurate measure in assessing the degree of body fatness is

    a) weight-height tables

    b) body mass index

    c) skinfold measurement

    d) waist-hip ratio
    c) skinfold measurement
  26. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Since lean body mass is less dense than fat tissue, a muscular person will be lighter in weight that a person of similar size who has a greater proportion of body fat
    False

    Lean tissue is denser than fat tissue; a muscular person will therefore be heavier in weight than another person of similar size who has a greater proportion of body fat
  27. The percentage of body fat

    a) is normally higher in women than in men

    b) is usually low in persons with high blood pressure

    c) is when greater than 15% in women, indicates obesity

    d) can be determined from BMI
    a) is normally higher in women than in men
  28. Of the health hazards listed below, only___________is not associated with obesity

    a) hypertension

    b) cancer

    c) gout

    d) atherosclerosis
    a) hypertension
  29. Of the health hazards listed below, only__________is not associated with serious underweight

    a) nutrient deficiencies

    b) amenorrhea

    c) hyperlipidemia

    d) retarded growth
    c) hyperlipidemia
  30. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    The associated risks of obesity are non-reversible, so mortality rates are higher in people who were formerly obese
    False

    Obesity and its associated risks are reversible. Sustained weight loss reduces disease risks and increases life expectancy
  31. The recommended approach to weight control is to

    a) limit energy intake to less than 1000 kcal/day

    b) avoid excessive intake of water, which may cause retention of body fluid

    c) cut out fats completely from the diet

    d) decrease energy intake by approximately 500 kcal/day
    d) decrease energy intake by approximately 500 kcal/day
  32. To lose one pound of body fat, a deficit of __________kilocalories is required

    a) 500

    b) 1500

    c) 2500

    d) 3500
    d) 3500
  33. The generally recommended rate of weight loss is about __________per week
    -one-half to two pounds
  34. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    "spot reducing" exercises help to reduce fat located in flabby areas of the body
    False

    "spot reducing" exercise will not selectively reduce fat located in flabby areas, but will tighten muscles to improve appearance
  35. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    A diet that depletes glycogen stores usually demonstrate an impressive initial weight loss
    True
  36. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    The Atkins Diet is effective because its high content of dietary fibre helps satisfy the appetite
    False

    The Atkins Diet has a low content of dietary fibre
  37. Of the effects listed below, ____________is not usually a result of a low carbohydrate diet

    a) diarrhea

    b) low blood pressure

    c) dehydration

    d) fatigue
    a) diarrhea
  38. Low carbohydrate diets are typically low in

    a) saturated fat

    b) protein

    c) cholesterol

    d) dietary fibre
    d) dietary fibre

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