Equine management

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Author:
jill.hinton
ID:
288780
Filename:
Equine management
Updated:
2014-11-10 05:38:33
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equine managment
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Description:
equine diseases, care and management
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  1. ______ may make proper mastication impossible, predisposing the animal to develop problems such as choke or an intestinal obstruction
    teeth problems
  2. Etiology of _____________
    Horses choke most frequently on greedily eaten dry grains; alfalfa can also cause obstructions
    Esophageal obstruction/choke
  3. Clinical signs of Esophageal obstruction/choke:
    a.
    b.
    c.
    • a. regurgitation
    • b. anxious after eating
    • c. enlargement cervical esophagus
  4. complications with esophageal obstruction/choke
    • aspiration pneumonia
    • esophageal stricture/rupture
  5. Diagnosis for ______________
    detection of cervical esophageal enlargement. passage of nasogastric tube often confirms luminal obstruction
    esophageal obstruction/choke
  6. Treatment for choke:
    a.
    b.
    • a. nasogastric tube passage under xylazine sedation
    • b. surgery w/ endoscopic and radiographic techniques may be needed if it doesn't work
  7. After obstruction is removed:
    a. __________ - this will allow esophageal lumen to return to normal
    b. _________ - given to prevent aspiration pneumonia
    • a. feed small amounts of soft food
    • b. broad spectrum antibiotics
  8. Choke prevention:
    a. _______ to slow down eating
    b. ________ is needed
    • a. rocks in feed pale
    • b. regular dental care
  9. Parasitic Gastric Disease:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. horse bots
    • 2. habronemiasis
  10. Horse bots:
    Etiology:
    Clin Signs:
    Diagnosis:
    Treatment:
    • larvae of bot flies, gasterophilus
    • mild gastritis or no signs at all
    • specific is difficult
    • routinely treat w/ botacide in fall when flies disappear
  11. Equine Anatomy
    Foregut includes and is what type of digestion:
    Hindgut includes and is what type of digestion:
    small intestine measures:
    large colon measures:
    • >stomach, duodenum, jejumun, ilieum. enzymatic
    • >cecum, lg colon, small colon. microbial
    • >22 meters
    • >7-8 meters
  12. Examination of Abdomen:
    1. ___________: rumbling or gurgling noises produced by movement of gas in the alimentary canal and audible at a distance
    2. ___________: listening with stethescope, _____ not usually heard during this.
    3. A combination of mixing and propulsive contractions will take place in the ______ and_________.
    • 1. Borborygmus
    • 2. Auscultation. Stomach or small intestinal contractions
    • 3. Cecum and large colon
  13. Exam Abdomen
    4. Auscultation findings be documented in _________ format.
    5. Rule outs for auscultation findings
    > _____ causes decreased motility
    >______: increased contractile activity in an attempt to move the obstruction more distally.
    >________: decreased or no contractile activity.
    • 4. quadrant
    • 5. > intestinal irritation/decreased perfusion
    •     > simple obstruction
    •     > infectious process, hypoperfusion from strangulating lesion.
  14. Exam Abdomen
    6. summary of findings
       > horses with normal to increased intestinal sounds _____________
       > horses with decreased sounds generally require _______
    • > respond to medical therapy
    • > surgery
  15. _____ is a gastrointestinal upset caused by various of things
    Colic
  16. Etiologies of Colic (name as many as you can)
    a.
    b.
    c.
    d. > strongylus vulgaris
    e. > horse will eat sand along with hay if on ground; also consumes if drinking water in shallow pond; often found in ___________ and ___________.
    f.
    g. >twist, torsion
    h. > consists of mineralized aggregates of ingested salts that form slowly in lg colon; often found in _________.
    • a. small intestinal volvulus and strangulation
    • b. intussuscetion
    • c. blockage
    • d. thromboembolic mesenteric vascular disease
    • e. sand colic
    • f. large colon displacements
    • g. colonic volvulus
    • h. enteroliths
  17. Clinical signs for Colic:
    A. Abdominal pain-restlessness, attempts to roll
    > ____: constant, severe pain
    > ____: mild, intermittent pain
    > ____: important indicator of infectious process
    > ____: not usually seen in ______. in ______ causes distension in paralumbar area
    • >strangulating obstruction
    • >simple obstruction
    • >depression
    • >abdominal distension: small intestine. cecum and large intestine
  18. ____ pulse can be found in the legs
    ____ pulse can be found near fetlock
    >cold limbs and faint pulse =
    • periferal
    • digital
    • shock
  19. Diagnosing Colic:
    a. Evaluate___
    b.
    c.
    d.
    e. >placing needle into abdomen to extract fluid
    • a. TPR, peripheral pulse, CRT, MM color, and lab blood samples (PCV/TP)
    • b. abdominal auscultaion
    • c. nasogastric tube intubation
    • d. rectal examination
    • e. abdominocentesis
  20. Parasites found in the mouth
    >Gasterophilus
  21. Parasites found in Stomach
    • > Drashia megastoma
    • > Habronema spp
    • > Trichostrongylus axei
    • > Gasterophilus spp

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