Music History Test 3

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dragonbring
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288871
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Music History Test 3
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2014-11-11 13:49:35
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Baker 351B CSUF
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for the third test in 2014 fall baker 351b
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  1. Cleofide
    • "DIgli Ch'io son fedele
    • Hasse
    • Opera Seria
  2. The Begger's Opera
    Ballad Opera

    • 2 arias
    • my heart was so free
    • were I laid on greenland's coast


    • "spoken dialogue and pop tunes"
    • english comic opera

    • John Gay (he was the libbretist) 
    • John Pepusch - wrote any new music that was needed

    • its about pickpockets, whores, lawyers and situations that were very realistic
    • "real people in real situations"
    • no complex songs but more like pop tunes

    • in a middle class vernacular 
    • about people trying to convince a woman to murder her husband for his money
  3. La Serva Padrona
    • Pergolesi
    • Intermezzo

    • recitative: ah quanto mi sta male
    • aria: son imbrogliato io


    • incredibly popular (still performed) 
    • about a girl who was acting as a "servant" to an older gentleman whose wife had died and she wants to marry him for security
    • features a bass in a leading role
    • this was totally different from opera seria

    • starts with them arguing
    • guy isnt interested in girl
    • she is going to see her "boyfriend" to make him  jealous

    • switches from dry recitative to recitative oblije
    • -making fun of opera seria
    • after the argument he is unsure 

    • da capo aria 
    • from the bass 
    • makes fun of the sound of a bass doing rapid lines
    • basses do not like to sing fast and this is extreamly diffucult and sounds funny
    • exploits the humor aspects in a bass voice
  4. Orfeo ed Euridice
    • Gluck
    • Opera - reform opera

    • simpler vocal lines
    • arias include passages of recitative
    • lots of recitatives 
    • scene complexes appear 
    • ballet, chorus, aria, and recitative all together 
    • orchestra is part of the drama
    • scary horns 
    • had some deliberately  ugly music
    • repetition makes it more unified
    • short aria and action takes place in the aria 
    • uses simple effictive language
  5. Creation
    • Billings
    • Fuging tune
    • from the continental harmony
  6. Sonata in D major
    • Scarlatti 
    • Sonata
  7. Sonata in A major
    • second movement
    • poco adagio
    • CPE bach
  8. Piano Sonata in D major
    JC bach
  9. symphony in F
    Sammartini 

    first movement - presto

    - strings only
  10. Sinfonia no 8
    • Stamitz 
    • first movement - allegro assai
    • - has flute/clarient/horn not just strings
  11. Concerto for keyboard and strings
    • JC bach
    • first movement - allegro di molto
  12. String quartet op 1 no 1
    Haydn
  13. sonata form
    • sonata form 
    • its a harmonic procedure (not like form and analysis) 
    • about moving from I to V and back 
    • its all about harmony
    • 3 main areas
    • has an introduction sometimes
    • exposition
    • you have some stuff in I then some stuff in V
    • you may have a transitionin between themes
    • Development
    • you play with your stuff
    • have a retransition that takes us back to one
    • Recapitulation
    • you play your stuff and what was once in V is now in I 
    • you may have a transition inbetween themes
    • has a coda sometimes
  14. minuet and trio form
    • minuet and trio
    • AABBCCDDAB (usually written with repeats)
  15. Rondo
    • Rondo 
    • ABACA
    • A is always in I 
    • it only gets a new letter if it goes into a new key
  16. sonata rondo
    • sonata rondo
    • ABACABA
    • A is always in I
  17. what forms were the movements of a symphony typically in?
    • typical symphony
    • mvt 1 - sonata allegro
    • mvt 2 - theme and variations or terniary form or song form (aa'ba)
    • mvt 3 - minuet and trio 
    • mvt 4 - sonata or rondo or sonata rondo
  18. Why does italy decline in the early classic era?
    NO MONEY
  19. where are new generas developed? where do they grow up?
    • formed in italy 
    • grow up in the holy roman empire
  20. why was the holy roman empire so prevalent in the arts (and music especially)
    loose collection of courts that competed against each other

    - everyone wanted a better orchestra / opera than the court next to them so they poured lots of money into music
  21. what were the 5 big courts in the HRE
    • berlin
    • dresden
    • mannheinn
    • stuggart
    • vienna
  22. france
    • culturally and intellectually a leader 
    • home of the enlightenment
    • all about the triumph of the common man or humanism
    • time of increasing literacy (bad news for the royals) 
    • you have a literate upper middle class
    • lots of social reform
    • religious tolerance is a thing
    • Protestants and catholics finally start getting along

    you get the philosophers here
  23. Voltaire (1694-1778)
    • member of the upper middle class and is catholic
    • hangs out with royalty
    • all about freedom of religion and freedom of expression 
    • including freedom of speech 
    • for the separation of the church and state
    • all about religious tolerance 
    • he is all about literacy 
    • he is for a benevolent monarchy
  24. montesquieu (1689-1755)
    • french baron who was catholic
    • against monarchy (royal absolutism) 
    • called for the separation of church and state
    • called for a balance of powers in government 
    • big fan of liberty (helped to fuel our bill of rights) 
    • major work is "spirit of the laws"
    • called for the reform of slavery (big during our civil war)
  25. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78)
    • Protestant and lower class and pretty romantic
    • worlds first hippy
    • advocated for being free of societies problems and restrictions
    • god was in nature not in any buildings 
    • into personal expression
    • all of his ideals were precursors to the romantic era
  26. denis diderot (1713-84)
    • one of the first encyclopedists 
    • published the first major french encyclopedia 
    • appealed to everyone  not just the upper class
    • rejected the church
    • he believed that good could be achieved through works of man not just the works of god 
    • important becasue it empowers people
    • was a materialist 
    • he was into science and objective knowledge 
    • one of the first over orthodoxy
  27. _________is the last great composer to work full time for a court
    haydn
  28. ________is the first successful non-operatic freelance composer
    beethoven
  29. stil galant
    • basic sound of the classic era
    • very elegant
    • not too demanding of either the listener or player
    • easy movement from I > V and back
    • very little stuff in minor
    • minor mode almost dies in the classic era
    • homophonic
    • and quite transparent
    • you can always tell what is going on
    • very melodious
    • melodies tend to be symmetrical 
    • very repetitive
  30. Empfindsemkeit
    • other sound of the classic era
    • northern german sound
    • sensitive style 
    • suppose to evoke gentle tears of melancholy
    • best likened to a winey 8th grader 
    • its parenthetical and has lots of clauses  
    • sounds like instrumental recitative 
    • mostly found in second slow movements 
    • developed by CPE bach (1714-88)
  31. What replaces the Harpsichord and why do harpsichords still hang around for awhile?
    FortePiano

    because they were expensive to get
  32. 3 different national "sounds"
    • germans were contrapuntal
    • Italians were dramatic, virtuosic and opera based
    • french is elegant and refined and ornamented 
    • you get a new international sound during the classical era because of more travel
    • all comes together in vienna (capital of austria)
  33. opera seria
    • new version of opera seria appears
    • still has historical plots
    • still is for courts
    • has lots of da capo (reprise form) arias
    • lots of recitative (mostly dry) 
    • important libretto are written by the court poet in vienna named Pietro Metastasio
    • he was an abbe (special type of secular priest like a decon) 
    • they were all historical plots usually about a ruler facing a crisis 
    • and throw in a few star crossed lovers 
    • they tended to pander to the king
    • almost always a happy ending
    • these are all da capo arias and conventions up the wazoo 
    • no chorus
    • few ensembles or duets
    • one major aria per main character per act
    • all about beautiful lofty language 
    • da capo aria 
    • all about expressing affects
    • he is the succesor to apostolo zeno
    • the glory days of his opera is from 1730 - 1775
  34. Johann Hassa
    • allegedly metasasio's fave composer
    • from drezdin
  35. Pietro Metastasio
    • he was an abbe (special type of secular priest like a decon)
    • Important Librettist 
    •  the succesor to apostolo zeno
    • he is the major librettist for classical opera seri a
  36. comic opera
    • -usually about real people in real situations
    • -lighter songs
    • -lots of ensembles (duets and trios) 
    • -fair amount of spoken dialogue
    • -except italy
    • - no castrati (very different from seria)
    • -england you have ballad opera
    • - italy you have intermezzi
  37. what are the 3 stages of italian comic opera
    "light songs" > Intermezzo > opera buffa
  38. why did intermezzo appear?
    • Lots of generas in the early 18th century (lots of different forms)
    • most were in the italian that people spoke 
    • you had light arias and light songs strung together by dialogue
    • no real standardized genera 
    • people wanted something else
    • new genera popped up that was a bit more lofty (intermezzo)
  39. intermezzo
    • would appear in-between acts of something else 
    • flourished in the 1730's and 40's 

    • mini operas
    • would have an act of an opera seria then an intermezzo in-between the acts
    • sometimes they would relate but they wouldnt most of the time

    they were funny with simple plots

    • lots of ensembles (2 or more singers singing a standalone piece together)
    • duets, trios, quartet, or something like that 

    • had stock characters
    • usually from comedia dell' arte


    • making fun of opera seria is a important component of intermezzi 
    • dealt with middle class themes
    • your seeing the early bits of the enlightement
  40. opera buffa
    • everything that an intermezzo is but longer
    • is a full length opera

    • allowed for more complicated plot
    • aria was more sophisticated and complicated
    • still had the "real people real situations" idea 
    • in the language of the people 
    • still have the ensembles as well
    • could now bring a bunch of people on stage
    • ensemble finales are very popular
  41. Carlo Goldoni
    • librettist (lots for galoppi)
    • helped to flesh out characters in the transition to opera buffa from intermezzi
    • often has class struggles in his libretto 
    • still had fairly simple
  42. Baldassare Galoppi
    • huge composer of opera buffa
    • he was the one that helped cement opera buffa in place
    • also helped to make opera buffa more sophisticated
  43. Singspiel
    • german comic opera
    •  in the language of the people
    • it was a reaction against opera seria and their reaction against their own upper class
    • nationalistic elements
    • beer drinking
    • hunting
    • often a blond girl with pigtails 
    • glorified the middle class
    • lots of romance
    • very fascinated with the exotic
    • and make fun of them
    • particularly people of color
  44. northern german singspiel
    • berlin and leipsig
    • Johan Adam Hiller
    • music journalist and composer
    • his opera was typical of northern germany 
    • Die Jaga (1770)
    • "the hunt"
    • tends to be very oriented on folk culture
  45. southern tradition singspiel
    • based in austria
    • exoticism was very prevalent here
    • "us vs them"
    • karl Ditters von Dittersdorf
    • composer
    • wrote die doktorund der apotheker
    • wolfgang amadeus mozart
    • composer
    • wrote die et entfuhrung aus dem serail
    • best singspeil
    • incredibly racist
    • is a rescue opera
    • girl is captured and needs to be rescued
  46. what is the german art song that begins in the classic era?
    • lieder also begins 
    • emerges around the same time as singspeal but doesnt become really important till romanticism is in full force
    • art songs
  47. opera comique
    • french
    • light and romantic with spoken dialogue
    • not a reaction against opera seria but just another form of entertainment
    • there are lots of different kinds (because it wasn't a rebellion)
    • begins around 1710 

    • phase 1 
    • light entertainment
    • light little shows with pretty songs and dancing
    • sometimes had pop tunes thrown in 

    • phase 2  
    • its all now newly composed and better organized 
    • showed influence of opera buffa and intermezzi

    • phase 3
    • became propaganda vehicles right before the french revolution 
    • rescue opera became prevalent 
    • "oh no the pretty lady has been captured"
    • in the french concept it was usually a political prisoner who is rescued
  48. Querelle dis bouffons
    • name of the newspaper war (pro-italian vs pro-french) that happened in france
    • happened because in 1752 la serva padrona was performed in france
    • half of the people loved it - other half hated the fact that it was italian 
    • argument started about whether italian influences could come into france performance
  49. opera lyrique
    • characteristics
    • huge mythological plot
    • ballet 
    • little (and non da capo) arias
    • chorus
    • big spectacle 
    • different types of recitative 
    • and a free flow between recitative and aria

    also called reform opera
  50. what is reform opera and why did it happen
    or opera lyrique

    • the system that supported opera seria was dying
    • there was a drive to save opera seria
    • there was a series of experiments to attempt to update italian opera seria
    • this created reformist opera

    • series of experiments in the structure and sound of serious italian opera 
    • runs from about 1755 till 1780
    • designed to make opera seria more relevant for large (non private maybe) audience
    • first they integrated elements of french opera and opera buffa
    • this reform was librettist driven (because they determined structure and plot) 

    • franchesco algarotti
    • he was a critic and a theorist
    • wrote a book called: Saggio Sopra L'aria in musica
    • basically said, "alright dudes opera seria is boring, unrealistic, and it needs an update"
    • he hated pasticcio 
    • wanted to get back to the greeks a bit

    • people (including algarotti)  really wanted to get rid of a da capo aria
    • didnt have any drama moving foward in it
    • people called for the use of all different kinds of recitative and more of it
    • wanted more chorus and more ensembles
    • also wanted a more active orchestra
    • also wanted simpler lines (less complicated everything)

    • Christoph Willibald Gluck
    • he was well versed in italian and french styles and wrote great reform opera
    • wrote ballet, opera seria, and reformist opera
    • had interesting friends (they wanted 
    • count Durazzo 
    • he ran the vienesse theater (burgtheater)
    • was the manager (chose the shows and hired everyone)

    • ranieri calzalogia 
    • librettist 
    • 1762 they got together and wrote orfeo ed euridice 
    • they want to put all kinds of french influence in for political and economic reasions

    • opera seria still dies 
    • was occassionally written still but never performend
  51. franchesco algarotti
    • he was a critic and a theorist
    • wrote a book called: Saggio Sopra L'aria in musica
    • basically said, "alright dudes opera seria is boring, unrealistic, and it needs an update"
    • he hated pasticcio 
    • wanted to get back to the greeks a bit
    • people (including algarotti)  really wanted to get rid of a da capo aria
    • didnt have any drama moving foward in it
    • people called for the use of all different kinds of recitative and more of it
    • wanted more chorus and more ensembles
    • also wanted a more active orchestra
    • also wanted simpler lines (less complicated everything)
  52. Christoph Willibald Gluck
    • he was well versed in italian and french styles and wrote great reform opera
    • wrote ballet, opera seria, and reformist opera
    • had interesting friends 

    • count Durazzo 
    • he ran the vienesse theater (burgtheater)
    • was the manager (chose the shows and hired everyone)

    • ranieri calzalogia 
    • librettist 

    • 1762 they got together and wrote orfeo ed euridice 
    • they want to put all kinds of french influence in for political and economic reasions
  53. dominco scarlatti
    • (1685-1757) - works in spain and portugal and was the son of allesandro scarlatii
    • he is in both the baroque and classic eras

    • he wrote one movement piano sonatas
    • his later ones are stil gallant
    • they are very repetitiave and catchy and involve crossing hands alot 
    • they are almost all in a fancy/dressed up bianary form

    his later sonatas are in a very developed bianary form with sonata form procedures
  54. CPE bach
    champion of emphanzkeit 

    • born in weimar and died in berlin
    • wrote an amazing piano book "the research of the true art of playing piano"
    • its the book for 18th century piano teaching
    • slow movments are usually where the most empfinzamkeit comes out
  55. johann Schobert
    among the first to write piano music that could not be played on a harpsichord [only forte piano because of technical issues] mozart did this too
  56. Dominico Alberti
    wrote alot of piano musicsimulated basso continuo with left hand invented alberti bass
  57. what were the pre coursers to the symphony? and what was the goal in creating the symphony?
    • precursors to the symphony 
    • concerti
    • concert overtures 
    • Opera Overtures !!!!!!
    • fast slow fast form (in one movement) 
    • main concern is to create an independent work with discreet movements 
    • sonata form is going to replace ritornello form
  58. why are the early symphonies in 3 movements?
    • because they grew from opera overtures  
    • symphony was born in italy 
    • and grew up somewhere else
  59. giovanni battista sammartini
    • wrote the very first pieces that could be considered independent symphonies
    • *you see the baroque fade away and sil gallant take over his music*

    • wrote 70 symphonies and 200 ensemble sonatas (we dont really know what they are) 
    • most are in a simple texture 
    • later ones are very sil gallant 
    • most are for only strings 
    • generally the movements are Fast Slow(aria like) Fast (dance)

    • his sontata forms are baby sonata forms
    • he is more developed than scarlatti but is not quite complete 
    • small development and the theme comes back in I at the end
    • but very short
  60. where did the symphony grow up?
    • grew up in Mannheim 
    • Tiny court 
    • very important from a commercial standpoint 

    • capital of the palentine state in the HRE
    • run by Carl Theodore from 1742-77
    • he loved music and all the arts
    • form, structure, and orchetration grow up here because Carl Theodore built the largest and most virtuosic orchestra in all of europe
    • and built the biggest opera house

    • the orchestra's primary function was for the opera
    • however when not being used for the opera they experimented with the symphony 

    • concertmaster was also the conductor
    • Johann Stamitz 

    • you get real bi-thematic sonata form 
    • b section tended to be more lyrical 
    • you see the first four movement symphonies
  61. Johann Stamitz
    • he was a general of a concertmaster
    • he actually had regular rehearsals (this was new)he had uniform bowings (he assigned them all) 

    he created a greater variaty of tone colors imported clarinets, flutes, and other instruments and added them to the orchestra 

    his orchestra was so virtuosic they could actually get louder and softer slowly

    they invented crescendo and diminuendo
  62. why was vienna important to the symphony?
    • vienna synthesizes all the national traditions 
    • they clung to counterpoint longer and combined sil gallant with counterpoint 
    • they tossed motives around the orchestra 
    • promoted better developments

    • Georg Christoph Wagenseil
    • important keyboard composer
    • important early symphonist 

    • Matthias Georg Monn
    • important early symphonist  

    Franz Joseph Haydn
  63. what were the forms for the 4 movements of a symphony
    • movments
    • 1) allegro in sonata form
    • 2) slow and in an aria like texture
    • 3) Minuet and trio
    • 4) rondo and presto
  64. why were concertos interesting in the classic era?
    • everybody who wrote symphonies wrote concerti 
    • big deal was moving from ritornello form to sonata form 
    • classical concerto is morphing ritornello and sonata form 
    • becomes a double exposition 
    • orchestra presents all the themes the soloist will treat (present)  all in one
  65. where were concerti first developed
    • first concerti were made in London 
    • because they would present child protégées  playing ridiculously difficult music  
    • lovely way to show off the ladies piano skills 
    • husband would hire a string quartet to play behind her 
    • they could be pretty light and fluffy
  66. String quartets
    • developed in London and paris and vienna
    • generally were for amateurs 
    • not pros
    • earliest ones were kinda like trio sonatas
    • cello and viola played "basso continuo"
    • they were very treble dominated
    • violin 1 rules
    • many were very dance based
    • from divertimenti
    • most early string quartets were fairly simplistic
  67. why was haydn important for the string quartet
    in his body of work he wrote string quartets from the beginning to the end of his career

    • you can see the entire development of the string quartet in his work
    • in the beginning they are very simple and treble dominated
    • in the end they are very complex and all voices are equal
    • listening op 1 no 1 string quartet
    • very simplistic

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