Anat- The Eye and Cranial Nerves.txt

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Mawad
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Anat- The Eye and Cranial Nerves.txt
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2014-11-11 16:02:26
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  1. The conical cavity containing the eyeball and ocular adnexa.
    Orbit
  2. The eyeball itself; the globe of the eye.
    Bulbus oculi
  3. The accessory parts of the eye; lids, lacrimal gland, etc.
    Adnexa
  4. Sinus dorsomedial to the orbit.
    frontal sinus
  5. Sinus rostromedial to the orbit.
    maxillary sinus
  6. The orbital ligament is a thick, fibrous band that unites the _______________ with the ______________.
    zygomatic process of the frontal bone; the frontal process of the zygomatic bone
  7. The cone-shaped sheath of connective tissue that encloses the eyeball and its muscles, vessels, and nerves.
    periorbita
  8. What are the 3 concentric layers of the eyeball?
    fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, and nervous tunic
  9. The only complete tunic, which forms and protects the eyeball.
    Fibrous tunic
  10. What are the 3 components of the fibrous tunic?
    sclera, cornea, and limbus
  11. The opaque posterior part of the fibrous tunic; the white of the eye.
    sclera
  12. The area where the cornea and sclera meet.
    Limbus
  13. The vascular tunic is also known as the __________.
    uvea
  14. What are the 3 continuous parts of the vascular tunic?
    choroid, ciliary body, and iris
  15. The choroid of the ________ tunic lines the _________ and it stretches from the ________ to the _______.
    vascular; sclera; optic nerve; limbus
  16. The choroid becomes the ________ around the limbus, when there is a thickened zone opposite the limbus.
    ciliary body
  17. Raised ring of ridges converging toward the lens in the center.
    ciliary body
  18. What are the 2 portions of the choroid?
    tapetum lucidum, nontapetal nigrum
  19. Light-reflecting area of the choroid.
    tapetum lucidum
  20. The non-reflective portion of the choroid.
    nontapetal nigrum
  21. The ciliary body of the _________ tunic is made up of...
    vascular; ciliary processes and ciliary muscles
  22. ____________ extend from the ciliary processes and function to suspend the lens.
    Zonular fibers
  23. The ciliary processes produce _________.
    aqueous humor
  24. The ciliary muscles function to...
    change the shape of the lens of the eye
  25. The __________ tunic contains light sensitive receptor cells.
    nervous
  26. The three parts of the nervous tunic?
    the retina, optic disc, and optic nerve
  27. The posterior aspect of the eye.
    fundus
  28. The blind spot of the retina; the area where the axons of the optic nerve exit the eye.
    optic disc
  29. What are the 3 groups of muscles of the eye.
    intraocular mm., extraocular mm., palpebral mm.
  30. Muscles that lie entirely within the sclera and are innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic NS.
    intraocular mm.
  31. The functions of the intraocular mm. include...(2)
    regulate pupillary diameter, regulate the shape of the lens and pupil
  32. What are the 3 groups of muscles classified as intraocular mm?
    ciliary mm., sphincter mm. of the iris, dilator mm. of the iris
  33. The sphincter and dilator mm. of the iris are innervated by the _____________..
    autonomic nervous system
  34. Muscles of the eye that insert on the sclera and effect rotation and retraction of the eyeball as a whole.
    extraocular mm.
  35. What cranial nerves innervate the extraocular mm? (3)
    CN III, IV, and VI
  36. What are the 7 extraocular mm?
    dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral rectus mm., the dorsal and ventral oblique mm., the retractor bulbi mm.
  37. CN VI innervates which extraocular mm.? (2)
    lateral rectus mm. and retractor bulbi mm.
  38. CN IV innervates which extraocular m.?
    dorsal oblique mm.
  39. CN III innervates which 4 extraocular mm.?
    dorsal, ventral, and medial rectus mm., ventral oblique mm.
  40. The palpebral mm. function to...
    regulate and shape the position of the palpebral fissure
  41. The orbicularis oculi m. functions to ________ and is innnervated by ________.
    close the eye; CN VII
  42. The levator palpebrae superioris m. functions to ____________ and is innervated by _______.
    elevate the upper eyelid; CN III
  43. Biconvex, solid structure in the eye that can change shape and refract light.
    lens
  44. What are the 3 chambers of the eye, and here are they located?
    anterior chamber (b/w b/w cornea and iris), posterior chamber (b/w iris and lens), vitreous chamber (posterior to lens)
  45. The anterior chamber contains ____________; the posterior chamber contains __________; the vitreous chamber contains ___________.
    aqueous humor; aqueous humor; vitreous humor
  46. __________ produce aqueous humor.
    Ciliary processes
  47. _________ is an elevation in intraocular pressure.
    glaucoma
  48. he junction of the iris and the cornea.
    Iridocorneal angle
  49. Describe the flow of aqueous humor.
    ciliary processes--> posterior chamber--> pupil/iris--> anterior chamber--> iridocorneal angle--> scleral venous sinus/plexus--> venous circulation
  50. The purpose of aqueous humor flow is to...
    maintain intraocular pressure
  51. The 2 types of conjunctiva and there respective locations are...
    palpebral conjunctiva (lines the inside of the eyelids); bulbar conjunctiva (covers part of the sclera under the eyelid)
  52. Where the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva meet.
    fornix
  53. Fold in the palpebral conjunctiva between the lacrimal caruncle and the eyeball; located at medial commissure.
    3rd eyelid (plica semilunaris)
  54. The lacrimal gland lies between the ___________ and the ____________.
    eyeball; dorsolateral wall of the orbit
  55. Minute slits on the edge of each lid; receive tears from the lacrimal duct (when not produced in excess) and drains them into the lacrimal ducts (canaliculus).
    lacrimal punctum (puncta pl.)
  56. Fluid entering the lacrimal ducts (canaliculus) from the lacrimal puncta travels to the ______________ and ultimately the ___________.
    lacrimal sac (at the beginning of the nasolacrimal duct); nasolacrimal duct
  57. The corners off the eyes.
    Medial and lateral commissures/angles/canthi (canthus singular)
  58. Upper and lower eyelids.
    Palpebrae
  59. Eyelashes (only on upper lids in carnivores).
    cilia
  60. Glands that produce lipid secretion to help maintain the moistness of the cornea.
    Tarsal glands
  61. Gland associated with the plica semilunaris that produces tears.
    superficial gland of the 3rd eyelid
  62. Slight mucosal elevation at the medial commissure that has few hairs.
    lacrimal caruncle
  63. The cranial nerve that innervates the tongue.
    hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
  64. Parasympathetic fibers are carried by which 4 cranial nerves?
    CN III, VII, IX, and X
  65. Nerve that exits from the cribriform foramina.
    olfactory nerve (CN I)
  66. The olfactory nerve comes from the _____________ through the __________ to the ___________.
    most rostral part of the brain; cribriform foramina; nasal cavity
  67. The olfactory nerve innervates the...
    sense of smell
  68. The cranial nerve the provides the special sense of sight.
    optic nerve (CN II)
  69. The nerve that provide motor innervation to most of the extraocular mm. and levator palpebrae superioris m.
    oculomotor n. (CN III)
  70. CN III, the oculomotor nerve, functions under the ___________ of the autonomic nervous system to ___________, allowing the following 2 functions...
    parasympathetic division; pupil constrictor mm.; accommodation of the lens and adjustment of pupil size
  71. The smallest cranial nerve, which functions in eye movement.
    trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  72. The trochlear n., CN IV, provide motor innervation to ___________.
    dorsal oblique m.
  73. What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal n. (CN V)?
    ophthalmic n., maxillary n., mandibular n.
  74. The branch of the trigeminal n. (CN V) that provides sensory innervation to the skin of the forehead, skin lateral to the eye, the nasal cavity, and the cornea.
    the ophthalmic nerve
  75. The branch of the trigeminal n. (CN V) that provides sensory innervation to the skin of the nose, face, oral cavity, and upper teeth.
    maxillary n.
  76. What are the 2 branches of the maxillary n. and their functions? (Note: the maxillary n. is a branch of the trigeminal n, CN V)
    infraorbital n.(skin of nose, face, oral cavity), superior alveolar n. (upper teeth)
  77. The branch of the trigeminal n. (CN V) that innervates the skin of the ear, the lower cheeck and jaw, the tongue, the lower teeth, the skin of the chin, and the mylohyoid m.
    mandibular n.
  78. What are the 6 branches of the mandibular n. and their functions? (Note: the mandibular n. is a branch of the trigeminal n., CN V)
    Auriculotemporal n. (skin of ear), buccal n. (lower cheek and jaw), lingual n. (tongue), inferior alveolar n. (lower teeth), mental n. (skin of chin), mylohyoid n. (mylohyoid m.)
  79. The ___________ enters the mandibular foramen.
    mandibular n.
  80. The _________ emerge from the mental foramina.
    mental nerves
  81. The cranial nerve that controls eye movement.
    abducent n. (CN VI)
  82. The abducent n. innervates what 2 muscles that are involved in eye movement?
    lateral rectus and retractor bulbi mm.
  83. The cranial nerve that innervates the eyelid, the muscles of facial expression, and taste to the rostral 2/3 of the tongue.
    facial nerve (CN VII)
  84. What are the 3 branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) and their functions?
    auriculopalpebral n. (eyelid), dorsal and ventral buccal branches (muscles of facial expression), chorda tympani (taste to rostral 2/3 of tongue)
  85. The cranial nerve that innervates the lacrimal gland, the mandibular salivary gland, and the sublingual salivary glands.
    major petrosal n. (CN VII)
  86. The major petrosal n. (CN VII) is under the control of the ____________.
    autonomic nervous system
  87. Lacrimation is controlled by _________.
    CN VII (major petrosal n.)
  88. The cranial nerve that controls hearing and balance.
    vestibulocochlear n. (CN VIII)
  89. What are the 2 divisions of the vestibulocochlear n. (CN VIII) and what are their functions?
    vestibular division (balance), cochlear division (hearing)
  90. The cranial n. that innervates the pharyngeal mm., tastes to the caudal 1/3 of the tongue, the parotid and zygomatic salivary glands, and the carotid sinus.
    glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
  91. ____________ provide taste sensation to the caudal 1/3 of the tongue.
    glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
  92. The two cranial nerves that control salivation.
    CN VII and IX (major petrosal n. and glossopharyngeal n., respectively)
  93. The cranial nerve that innervates the larynx and pharynx.
    vagus nerve (CN X)
  94. What are the 2 branches of the vagus n. (CN X) to the head? What are their functions?
    cranial laryngeal n. (cricothyroideus m.), caudal laryngeal n. (aka recurrent laryngeal n.; cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.)
  95. The cranial nerve that innervates the neck muscles.
    accessory nerve (CN XI)
  96. The cranial nerve that innervates the tongue muscles.
    hypoglossal n. (CN XII)

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