Anatomy- Head.txt

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Anatomy- Head.txt
2014-11-11 16:02:58

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  1. Apical portion of the nose, including nostrils, devoid of hair.
    Nasal plane
  2. Median groove between the nostrils.
  3. Bony opening into the nasal cavity.
    Nasal aperture
  4. Curved cartilage that supports the roof and the wing of the nose.
    Alar cartilage
  5. The nasal septum is made up of... (2)
    septal cartilage and osseous components
  6. The alar fold contains ________ opening of the ________ duct.
    rostral; nasolacrimal duct
  7. Caudal openings of the nasal cavities.
  8. The bony scrolls covered by nasal mucosa and filling each half of the nasal cavity.
    nasal conchae
  9. What are the types of conchae?
    ventral, dorsal, ethmoidal conchae
  10. The ethmoid bone is also called the ____________.
    ethmoidal labyrinth
  11. What structure is present in the nasal cavity of a cat but not a dog?
    middle nasal concha
  12. A passage in the nasal cavity.
  13. Dorsal to the dorsal concha.
    dorsal meatus
  14. Between dorsal and ventral conchae.
    middle nasal meatus
  15. Ventral to ventral concha.
    ventral nasal meatus
  16. Between nasal conchae and septum.
    Common nasal concha
  17. Diverticula of the nasal cavity which excavate the skull.
    paranasal sinuses
  18. Paranasal sinuses are lined by a ___________ and communicate with _____________.
    mucous membrane; nasal cavity
  19. The ________ is behind the front bone.
    frontal sinus
  20. The _______________ is above the 4th upper premolar to the second molar.
    maxillary sinus/recess
  21. What are the functions of the muscles of the face?
    open, close, or move the lips, eyelids nose, and ears
  22. The muscles f the face are innervated by...
    the facial nerve (CN VII)
  23. Cutaneous muscle that passes from the dorsal median raphe of the neck to the angle of the mouth, where it radiates into the orbicularis oris in the lips.
  24. Muscle that lie near the free borders of the lips and extends from one lip to the other around the angle of the mouth.
    orbicularis oris
  25. Thin, wide muscle that forms the foundation of the cheek; it attaches to the alveolar margins of the mandible and maxilla and the adjacent buccal mucosa.
    buccinator muscle
  26. A flat muscle lying beneath the skin on the lateral surface of the maxillary bone; originates at maxillary bone, courses rostroventrally, and attaches at the edge of the superior lip and on the naris.
    levator nasolabialis
  27. The levator nasolabialis m. has what functions?
    dilates the nostril and raises the superior lip
  28. The muscle that lies partly in the eyelids and is attached medially to the medial palpebral ligament.
    orbicularis oculi
  29. What 2 bones make up the roof of the cranium?
    parietal and front skill bones
  30. The _________ makes up the floor of the cranium.
    sphenoid bone
  31. The meeting point of sagittal and nuchal crests.
    external occipital protuberance
  32. The ___________ articulates with cervical vertebra 1 (atlas).
    occipital condyle
  33. What is the attachment for digastrictus m. on the cranium?
    paracondylar process of the occipital bone
  34. What is the opening for the spinal cord in the cranium?
    foramen magnum of the occipital bone
  35. What makes up the medial surface of the orbit?
    lacrimal bone
  36. What makes up the caudal part of the nasopharynx?
    pterygoid bone
  37. The osseous part of the nasal septum.
  38. The mandible articulates with the...
    mandibular fossa of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
  39. The vertical part of the mandible that bears no teeth.
  40. The joint between the condylar process and the mandibular fossa of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
    temporomandibular joint
  41. The motor branch of the mandibular nerve to masseter m. passes over the ________.
    mandibular notch
  42. The inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve travel through the ___________ to supply the __________.
    mandibular foramen and canal; lower teeth
  43. A common site of fracture in the mandible.
    mandibular symphysis, where the two mandibles (right and left) join rostrally
  44. The only part of the hyoid apparatus that is not bone.
    tympanohyoid cartilage
  45. Diverticula of the nasal cavity which excavate the skull.
    paranasal sinuses
  46. Paranasal sinuses are lined by ___________ and communicate with the _________.
    mucous membrane; nasal cavity
  47. The ventral, median fold of mucosa that attaches the tongue rostrally to the floor of the oral cavity.
    lingual frenulum
  48. Mucosa extending caudally from the caruncle.
    sublingual fold
  49. Slightly raised elevation of mucosa that is lateral to the rostral part of the frenulum and protrudes from the floor of the oral cavity; the point where the salivary ducts open into the oral cavity.
    sublingual caruncle
  50. The fibrous spicule inside the ventral part of the tongue.
  51. Papillae that form rows on the body and apex of the tongue; they have multiple pointed tips directed caudally.
    filiform papillae
  52. Gustatory papillae that are distributed among the filiform and conical papillae; have a smooth, rounded surface.
    fungiform papillae
  53. Gustatory papillae arranged in the form of a "V" at the junction of the body and root of the tongue.
    vallate papillae
  54. Gustatory papillae that are on the lateral margins of the root of the tongue; have a leaf-like appearance.
    foliate papillae
  55. Papillae with one, pointed tip that are positioned at the root of the tongue.
    conical papillae
  56. Papillae on the lateral, rostral surfaces of the tongue in puppies only.
    marginal papillae
  57. What i characteristic of a cat tongue?
    caudally directed, strongly keratinized conical papillae that serves as a stiff brush for grooming
  58. The branch of the facial nerve that innervates the rostral 2/3 of the tongue for TASTE.
    chorda tympani
  59. The nerve that innervates the caudal 1/3 of the tongue to TASTE.
    glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
  60. The mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that innervates the tongue for SENSATION. What other nerve innervates the tongue for sensation?
    lingual nerve; CN IX
  61. All lingual muscles are innervated for motor function by...
    CN XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  62. Functions of the intrinsic lingual muscles.
    protrude the tongue, prevent the tongue from being bitten
  63. Styloglossus m.
    • Attachments- runs from stylohyoid bone to middle of tongue
    • Function- retracts and elevates tongue
    • Innervation- Hypoglossal nerve
  64. Hyoglossus m.
    • Attachments- from basihyoid and thyrohyoid bones to the root of the tongue
    • Function- retracts and depresses tongue
    • Innervation- hypoglossal nerve
  65. Genioglossus m.
    • Attachments- from the intermandibular symphysis to the tongue, basihyoid, and ceratohyoid bones
    • Function- to protrude and retract the apex of the tongue
    • Innervation- hypoglossal nerve
  66. What are the functions of the hyoid muscles?
    swallowing, lolling, lapping, and retching
  67. The hyoid muscles are innervated by...
    CNs V, IX, XII, and the first few cervical nerves
  68. Sternohyoideus m.
    • Attachments- sternum to basihyoid bone
    • Function- pull basihyoid and tongue caudally
  69. Thyrohyoideus m.
    • Attachments- lamina of thyroid cartilage to thyrohyoid bone
    • Function- draw hyoid apparatus caudally
  70. Mylohyoideus m.
    • Attachments- medial side of mandible to midline raphae and basihyoid bone
    • Function- raise floor of mouth and draw hyoid apparatus rostrally
  71. Geniohyoideus m.
    • Attachments- chin to basihyoid bone
    • Function- draw hyoid apparatus cranially (swallowing) and maintain airway
  72. Ceratohyoideus m.
    • Attachments- Thyrohyoid bone to ceratohyoid bone
    • Function- decrease angle formed by the two hyoid bones
  73. The first branch of the common carotid a. is the ______________, and the continuation of the main branch is the ___________.
    internal carotid a.; external carotid a.
  74. The internal carotid a. has a bulge at the base known as the ___________; this functions as a _________.
    carotid sinus; baroreceptor to detect pressure changes
  75. The internal carotid a. supplies the __________.
  76. What are the 5 branches of the external carotid a. in order?
    occipital a., lingual a., facial a., caudal auricular a., superficial temporal a.
  77. After the ____________, the external carotid artery continues as the ____________.
    superficial temporal a.; maxillary a.
  78. The occipital a. is a branch of the _____________ and is supplies the....
    external carotid a.; muscles on the caudal aspect of the skull and meninges
  79. The lingual a. is a branch of the __________ that courses _________.
    external carotid a.; ventrally
  80. The lingual a. supplies the...
    tonsils and tongue
  81. The facial a. is a branch of the _________ that courses _________ and runs medial to the _________.
    external carotid a.; ventrally; digastricus m.
  82. The facial a. supplies the...
    lips and nose
  83. The caudal auricular a. is a branch of the ___________, and it supplies the...
    external carotid a.; caudal auricular mm. and structures associated with the caudal ear
  84. The superficial temporal a. is a branch of the ___________ and it supplies the...
    external carotid a.; structures of the temporal region
  85. What are the 5 branches of the maxillary a. in order?
    inferior alveolar a., external ophthalmic a., minor palatine a., shared trunk of major palatine a. and sphenopalatine a.
  86. The inferior alveolar a. enters the __________, courses through the __________, and exits out the _________.
    mandibular foramen; mandibular canal; mental foramina
  87. The inferior alveolar a. is a branch of the ___________, and it supplies the...
    maxillary a.; roots of the lower teeth, mental branches of the skin
  88. The external ophthalmic a. is a branch of the ____________, and it supplies the...
    maxillary a.; structures within the periorbita
  89. The minor palatine a. is a branch of the ____________; it supplies the...
    maxillary a.; soft and hard palate
  90. The shared trunk of the _________ and the __________ branches off the ___________ after the ___________.
    major palatine a.; sphenopalatine a.; maxillary a.; minor palatine a.
  91. The major palatine a. supplies the...
    hard palate
  92. The sphenopalatine a. supplied the...
    nasal cavitiy
  93. After the major palatine and sphenopalatine aa. branch, the maxillary a. becomes the __________.
    infraorbital a.
  94. The infraorbital a. enters the __________, passes through the __________, and exits the ___________.
    maxillary foramen; infraorbital canal; infraorbital foramen
  95. The infraorbital a. supplies the...
    upper teeth, nose, and upper lip
  96. The external jugular v. is formed by the confluence of the...
    linguofacial and maxillary vv.
  97. The linguofacial v. is formed by the confluence of the...
    lingual and facial vv.
  98. The __________ is formed by the lingual vv. on the ventral side of the head and neck.
    hyoid venous arch