Anatomy- Larynx Pharynx Ear.txt

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Mawad
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288889
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Anatomy- Larynx Pharynx Ear.txt
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2014-11-11 16:03:29
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larynx pharynx ear
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  1. A passageway that is, in part, common to both the respiratory and digestive systems.
    pharynx
  2. The space outside the teeth/gums and inside the lips/cheeks rostral to the teeth.
    vestibule
  3. Space bounded by hard palate dorsally, tongue ventrally, and teeth laterally and rostrally.
    oral cavity proper
  4. The pharynx connects the __________________ with the _________________, respectively.
    nasal and oral cavities; trachea and esophagus
  5. The function of the pharynx.
    to direct the intake of food and air into the proper channels
  6. The ____________ divides the rostral portion of the pharynx into the ___________ and the ____________.
    soft palate; oropharynx; nasopharynx
  7. The caudal part of the pharynx that is common to the naso- and oropharynxes.
    laryngopharynx
  8. What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?
    ventral to soft palate, palatoglossal arch to caudal border of soft palate and base of epiglottis
  9. Mucosal fold that extends between the body/root of tongue to the beginning of the soft palate and the base of the epiglottis.
    palatoglossal arch
  10. The palatoglossal arch marks the division between the _____________ and the __________.
    oropharynx; oral cavity
  11. The palatine tonsils are on the roof of the mouth in __________.
    tonsillar fossa
  12. What are the boundaries of the nasopharynx?
    dorsal to soft palate, from choanae to palatopharyngeal arches at caudal end of soft palate
  13. The pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube is located in the __________.
    nasopharynx
  14. The __________ extends caudally on each side from the caudal border of the soft palate to the dorsolateral wall of the nasopharynx.
    palatopharyngeal arches
  15. The palatopharyngeal archs mark the division between the __________ and the _________.
    nasopharynx; laryngopharynx
  16. Part of both the respiratory and digestive channels, where air from the nasopharynx crosses to reach the larynx and food/ater from the oropharynx crosses into the esophagus.
    laryngopharynx
  17. What are the borders of the laryngopharynx?
    caudal to the soft palate; dorsal to the larynx
  18. The continuation from the floor of the oropharynx on either side of the larynx.
    piriform recess
  19. Site where bones and other foreign bodies may lodge.
    piriform recess
  20. Site for pharyngostomy.
    piriform recess
  21. Annular constriction of mucosa that is at the level of the cricoid cartilage.
    pharyngoesophageal limen
  22. The pharyngoesophageal limen marks the division between the ____________ and the ___________.
    laryngopharynx; esophagus
  23. Where do we insert endotracheal and nasogastric tubes?
    • Endotracheal tube- oropharynx, over epiglottis, down trachea
    • Nasogastric tube- through nasal cavity, nasopharynx, down esophagus
  24. The pharyngeal muscles are all innervated by...
    CN IX or X
  25. Function of the pharyngeal mm.?
    aid in swallowing
  26. Cricopharyngeus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action
    • Origin- lateral surface of cricoid cartilage
    • Insertion- median dorsal raphe of the laryngopharynx
    • Action- constrict the pharynx to aid in swallowing
  27. Thyropharyngeus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action
    • Origin- lateral side of the thyroid lamina
    • Insertion- median dorsal raphe of the pharynx
    • Action- constrict the pharynx to aid in swallowing
  28. Hyopharyngeus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action-
    • Origin- lateral surface of of the thyrohyoid bone and the ceratohyoid bone
    • Insertion- median dorsal raphe of the pharynx (two part muscle arises from each lateral side and those parts meet here)
    • Function- to constrict the pharynx to aid in swallowing
  29. Palatopharyngeus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action
    • Origin- soft palate
    • Insertion- into the lateral and dorsal wall of the pharynx
    • Function- to constrict the pharynx to aid in swallowing
  30. Stylopharyngeus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action
    • Origin- stylohyoid bone
    • Insertion- dorsolateral wall of the pharynx
    • Function- to dilate the pharynx
  31. Musculocartilagenous organ guarding the entrance to the trachea, which serve as an air passageway, aids vocalization, and prevents the inspiration of foreign material.
    larynx
  32. The larynx is the tube connecting the ___________ and the __________.
    laryngopharynx; trachea
  33. What are the cartilages of the larynx?
    epiglottis, thyroid, arytenoid, and cricoid cartilages
  34. Ligament running from the ventral surface of the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage.
    cricothyroid ligament
  35. Lateral diverticulum of laryngeal mucosa; between epiglottis and larynx.
    laryngeal ventricle (lateral ventricle)
  36. The ____________ fold is rostral to the laryngeal ventricle; the __________ fold is caudal to the laryngeal ventricle.
    vestibular; vocal (vocal cord)
  37. The mucosa-covered vocal ligament and muscle caudal to the laryngeal ventricle.
    vocal fold
  38. The vocal apparatus of the larynx.
    glottis
  39. The glottis consists of...
    vocal folds, the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilages, and the rima glottidis
  40. The opening between the vocal folds and arytenoid cartilages; the passageway into the glottis.
    rima glottidis
  41. Cricothyroideus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action-
    Innervation-
    • Origin- ventral sides of cricoid cartilage
    • Insertion- lateral sides of thyroid cartilage
    • Function- to tense the vocal fold by drawing the ventral parts of the cricoid and thyroid cartilages together
    • Innervation- cranial laryngeal n.
  42. Ventrally, the cricothyroideus m. looks like a ___________.
    bowtie
  43. Cricoarytenoideus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action-
    Innervation-
    • Origin-dorsolateral surface of cricoid cartilage
    • Insertion-lateral surface of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage
    • Action- to abduct the vocal folds to open the glottis
    • Innervation- caudal laryngeal n. (recurrent laryngeal n.)
  44. Roarer in horses is caused by...
    laryngeal hemiplagia- paralysis of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve; left vocal fold everts into the lumen of the larynx, causing air not to pass properly and roaring sound
  45. What is the corrective surgery for roarer in horses?
    replace the cricoarytenoid dorsalis m. with a suture so that the vocal fold is permanently pulled laterally
  46. Sternothyroideus m.
    Origin-
    Insertion-
    Action-
    • Origin- first costal cartilage
    • Insertion- caudolateral surface of thyroid cartilage
    • Action- to draw the larynx and tongue caudally
  47. The ear is the organ of....
    hearing and balance
  48. The passageway from the pinna to the tympanic membrane (ear drum).
    external ear
  49. The externally visible part of the external ear.
    pinna (auricula)
  50. Small cartilage adjacent to the skull and auricular cartilage connecting the pinna to the skull.
    annular cartilage
  51. What are the 2 parts of the external acoustic meatus (external ear canal)?
    vertical and horizontal parts
  52. The part of the ear inside the tympanic cavity and including the tympanic membrane (ear drum).
    middle ear
  53. The middle ear contains...
    auditory ossicles and opening to the auditory tube
  54. 3 small bones that transmit air vibrations from the tympanic membrane across the cavity of the middle ear to the inner ear.
    auditory ossicles
  55. what are the 3 auditory ossicle?
    malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
  56. Pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube that opens externally into the nasopharynx.
    auditory (eustachian) tube
  57. The eustachian tube is a potential path for...
    infection from the nasopharynx to the middle ear
  58. Membranous labyrinth within a bony labyrinth that functions in balance and hearing.
    inner ear
  59. What are the major components of the inner ear?
    semicircular ducts (balance), cochlear duct (hearing)
  60. Clear dialysate of the blood located within the inner ear.
    endolymph
  61. In the inner ear, the __________ surrounds the ___________.
    osseous labyrinth; membranous labyrinth

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