Histo- Cardiovascular .txt

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Histo- Cardiovascular .txt
2014-11-11 16:05:34
cardiovascular histo

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  1. How does the circulatory system regulate extracellular fluid?
  2. Tunica intima consists of... (2)
    endothelium and basement membrane
  3. What are the anticoagulant effect of endothelial cells? (3) (resting cells)
    inhibit platelet aggregation (ADPase, prostacyclin), reduce fibrogenesis (TFPI), promote fibrinolysis (t-PA)
  4. What is the pro-coagulant effect of endothelium? (following injury)
    Enhanced fibrogenesis (tissue factor)
  5. The tunica media is made up of... (4)
    smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix (elastin and ground substance)
  6. The internal and external elastic laminae delineate the...
    borders of the tunica media
  7. The tunica adventitia is composed of...
    MAINLY loose fibrous connective tissue.... various other components may include vasa vasorum, nervi vasorum, adipose, surrounding connective tissue
  8. Regulate flow to capillary bed.
  9. Mechanism to bypass blood from the capillary bed.
    arteriovenous anastomoses
  10. Capillaries facilitate nutrient transfer through fluids via _________ and through gases via _______.
    pinocytosis; diffusion
  11. What are the 3 types of capillary endothelium?
    continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal
  12. Type of capillary endothelium with unbroken endothelium and basal lamina.
    continuous endothelium
  13. In what organs is continuous endothelium found? (2)
    brain, lung
  14. Type of capillary endothelium with fenestrated endothelium and continuous basal lamina.
    Fenestrated endothelium
  15. In what organ is fenestrated endothelium found?
  16. Type of capillary endothelium with fenestrated endothelium and fenestrated basal lamina.
    Sinusoidal (discontinuous) endothelium
  17. In what organs is sinusoidal(discontinuous) endothelium found?
    liver, spleen
  18. Milky white fluid in associated with lymphatics of the intestine.
  19. The pericardium/epicardium of the heart are analogous with the _________.
    tunica adventitia
  20. The myocardium of the heart is analogous with the ___________.
    tunica media
  21. The endocardium and valves of the heart are analogous with the _________.
    tunica media
  22. 5 differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle.
    • cardiac muscle has:
    • branching of cardiomyocytes
    • prominent connective tissue
    • intercalated discs
    • centrally-placed nuclei
    • purkinje fibers (around epicardium)
  23. Intracellular connections within intercalated discs.
    fascia adherens
  24. Fascia adherens and gap junctions allow intercalated discs to...
    contract simultaneously
  25. The mesothelium lines the __________.
  26. Describe the components of the pericardium.
    • Fibrous component- dense collagenous tissue.
    • Serous component- Parietal and visceral (epicardium) portions
    • Epicardium is lined by mesothelium (separates parietal and visceral serous portions)
  27. The ____cardium has blood vessels throughout it but the ____cardium does not.
    epi; endo
  28. __________ covers both sides of a heart valve; the other layers are apposed to each other in the following order from atrial side to ventricular side...
    Endothelium; atrialis, spongiosa, fibrosa, ventricularis
  29. Fibroblasts in cells are called __________.
    valve interstitial cells (VICs)
  30. The conduction system of the heart has the following 4 components...
    Purkinje fibers, bundle of His, nodal tissue, and moderator bands (trabecula septomarginalis)
  31. What are the 2 designations of nodal tissue that are a part of the heart's conducting system and their respective locations in the heart?
    sinoatrial node (right atrium at crista terminalis near opening of cranial vena cava), atrioventricular node (base of right atrium by right ventricle and septum b/w atria)
  32. Large, pale, eosinophilic cardiomyocytes that are part of the heart's conducting system.
    purkinje fibers
  33. Collection of purkinje cells at the base of the interventricular septum.
    bundle of His