Histo- Epithelium and Connective Tissue.txt

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Histo- Epithelium and Connective Tissue.txt
2014-11-11 16:06:04
epithelium connective tissue histo

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  1. The epithelium serves the purpose to...
    separate a space (the lumen) from the underlying tissue
  2. What are the 5 defining characteristics of epithelium?
    • 1. Close apposition of cells.
    • 2. Free surface of epithelial cells is adjacent to the space that is limited
    • 3. Basal surface (bottom) is adjacent to connective tissue
    • 4. Sheets of epithelial cells may be modified to glands
    • 5. Absence of blood vessels within epithelial layer
  3. 6 functions of epithelium.
    • 1. Protection against abrasion, desiccation
    • 2. Lubrication
    • 3. Secretion
    • 4. Absorption
    • 5. Sensory reception
    • 6. Gas transfer
    • 7. Ion transport
  4. Surface of the cell adjacent or attached to the basement membrane.
    Basilar or basolateral surface
  5. Surface of the cell farthest away from the basement membrane.
    Apical surface
  6. Three characteristics used to classify epithelium.
    number of layers of cells, shape of cells, function (glandular/non-glandular)
  7. Three classifications of epithelium based upon numbers of cells.
    • Simple- one layer of cells.
    • Stratified- two or more true layers (only cells at the basal surface have attachment to the basement membrane).
    • Pseudostratified- Cells have nuclei arranged at different levels, giving a stratified appearance, but all cells make contact with basal lamina.
  8. 4 classifications of epithelium based on cellular shape.
    • Squamous- flattened in the plane of the epithelium.
    • Cuboidal- height and width are equal.
    • Columnar- height is much more than width.
    • Transitional- capable of changing shape (only in urinary tract).
  9. Epithelial type cells that do not produce and secrete extracellular products.
  10. 5 body tissues where non-glandular epithelial cells are found.
    skin, urinary bladder, oral mucosa, esophagus, vasculature
  11. Skin is an example of ______, _______ epithelium.
    stratified, squamous
  12. Epithelial lined structures that produce a chemical that is secreted extracellularly.
  13. Glands can be ______ or ______.
    endocrine (secrete into bloodstream) or exocrine (secrete into duct)
  14. 3 mechanisms for glandular secretions.
    • 1. Merocrine- exocytosis of secretory vesicles to the lumen of the gland.
    • 2. Holocrine- death of an entire cell within a gland releases content into the lumen of the gland.
    • 3. Apocrine- release of budding vesicles off the epithelial cells into the lumen of the gland (an actual piece of the cell blebs off, unlike merocrine, which releases vacuoles from the cytoplasm)
  15. Sweat glands are _____.
  16. Sebaceous glands are _____.
  17. Cell surface modifications which increase surface area of a cell, while keeping the size of the cell relatively small.
  18. Microvilli are seen in organs where _________ is a primary function, such as ______ and _______.
    absorption of molecules; small intestine; kidneys
  19. Modifications of epithelium that are projections and type of organelle that are seen on the apical surface of epithelial cells, beat in a coordinated fashion, and assist in the movement of material over the epithelial surface.
  20. Cilia are always found on the _______ of epithelial cells.
    apical surface
  21. Tight junctions ________, and hen present in a sheet, they allow ______________ [functions].
    hold cells together; epithelium to form a barrier between two compartments
  22. Tight junctions are aka ______.
    zona occludens
  23. Gap junctions serve as a _____________, and they allow _________ [functions].
    connection between cells which joins their cytoplasms; the passage of molecules freely between the cells
  24. Desmosomes join _______ to ________.
    cells to other cells.
  25. Hemidesmosomes join ________ to _________.
    cells to the basement membrane
  26. Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes bind __________ across cells and are anchored by __________ within a cell.
    cell surface proteins; filaments
  27. Single layer of flat cells that can be continuous or discontinuous and is permeable to the passage of molecules.
    simple squamous epithelium
  28. Simple squamous epithelium is particularly important inside of ______.
    blood vessels
  29. The outer membrane that covers internal organs.
  30. The serosa and cells forming it.
  31. The most inner wall of the blood vessels.
  32. The endothelium is _____, ______ epithelium.
    simple, squamous
  33. Simple squamous epithelium that has small openings; common in the liver.
  34. Simple squamous epithelium that has large spaces.
  35. A single layer of cuboidal epithelium lining a basement membrane.
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  36. Simple cuboidal epithelium provide ______ and ______ functions.
    secretory, absorptive
  37. Epithelium in which the length if greater than the width and the nuclei are located at the base of the cell; often has a modification (cilia or microvilli).
    simple columnar epithelium
  38. A single layer of cells similar to columnar epithelium, except the nuclei are arranged at different levels and every cell is attached to the underlying basement membrane.
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  39. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium have _______ and ________ functions.
    absorptive and secretory
  40. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is common in the _____.
    respiratory tract
  41. Epithelium arranged in layers; superficial cells are flat, but deeper layers may be cuboidal.
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  42. Stratified squamous epithelium is common in regions where ___________ is necessary.
    protection against abrasions
  43. Stratified squamous epithelium is common in _______.
    oral mucosa
  44. Layers of this type of epithelium can be shed and regrown.
    stratified squamous epithelium
  45. Intracellular filament which provides structure to cells.
  46. A tough waterproof barrier is formed through cornification (keritinization), which is...
    cells int he uppermost layer of stratified squamous epithelium lose their nuclei and organelles, leaving behind a dead cell with keratin and other inert structural elements
  47. Unique type of stratified epithelium in which the cells can change shape in response to stretching of the organ.
    urothelium (transitional epithelium)
  48. All types of connective tissue are composed of... (2)
    cells and extracellular matrix
  49. __________ is the primary structural component of connective tissue.
    Extracellular matrix
  50. Material formed from glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in connective tissue; holds water and acts as a space filler.
    ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix)
  51. The fiber component of extracellular matrix can be... (3)
    collagen, reticular fibers, or elastic fibers (elastin)
  52. Describe the structure of collagen.
    AA sequence--> triple helix (tropocollagen) --> fibrils --> fibers
  53. Fibrils are cross-linked with each other in collagen to form ________.
  54. Type I collagen
    most abundant; tendons, dermis, arterial walls
  55. Type II collagen
    hyaline cartilage
  56. Type III collagen
    reticulin fibers, granulation tissue
  57. Type IV collagen
    basil lamina, ocular membranes, basement membrane of glomerular capillaries
  58. Type V collagen
    interstitial connective tissue (fine/in between cells)
  59. New vascular tissue in granular form on an ulcer or the healing surface of a wound.
    granulation tissue
  60. subtype of collagen that are delicate and unorganized and easily identified by silver staining.
    reticulin fibers
  61. Reticulin fibers are present in...
    lymphatic organs and bone marrow
  62. Provide connective tissue with the ability to stretch.
  63. 3 examples of tissues with high elastin content.
    tendons, ligaments, arteries
  64. Cellular components of connective tissue. (5)
    fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes
  65. The most common cells in connective tissue.
  66. Fibroblasts are _________ and ________-shaped with _________ of cytoplasm.
    elongated; spindle-shaped; a small amount
  67. Fibroblasts are distinguished from fibrocytes because they are...
    metabolically active and larger
  68. Derived from blood monocytes; function to phagocytose debris and act as surveillance for the immune system.
  69. Cells that store lipids and are often interspersed between collagen bundles.
  70. The microscopic appearance of connective tissue is divided into two forms:
    embryonic connective tissue and fibrous connective tissue
  71. This type of tissue is found in the developing embryo and in the umbilical cord.
    embryonic connective tissue
  72. Loosely arranged fibers of ground substance containing interspersed stellate cells.
    mesenchymal tissue
  73. A loose network of type I collagen and reticulin fibers with interspersed ground substance, cells, and vasculature.
    loose (areolar) connective tissue (type of fibrous connective tissue)
  74. Closely packed collagen fibers with interspersed fibroblasts an fibrocytes; primary component of tissue that need to be tough yet pliable.
    dense fibrous connective tissue
  75. dense fibrous connective tissue is found in... (2)
    tendons and ligaments
  76. Connective tissue that acts as a skeleton for organs with a high parenchymal component (liver, spleen, kidney).
    reticulin fibrous connective tissue
  77. The 2 main roles of adipose tissue.
    store energy in the form of lipid, insulation
  78. Predominant type of adipose tissue in most animals.
    white adipose tissue
  79. Adipose cells appear like....
    clear, circular structures with flattened nuclei on one edge
  80. Brown adipose tissue is seen in...
    neonates or animals that hibernate
  81. Brown adipose tissues appear...
    to have smaller cytoplasmic vacuoles and eosinophilic cytoplasm; nuclei are not flattened to the side of the cell.
  82. Cartilage is composed of _________ embedded in extracellular matrix, composed of... (3)
    chondrocytes; collagen, ground substance; elastic fibers
  83. Three major types of cartilage.
    hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage
  84. In hyaline cartilage, chondrocytes are arranged in...
    clusters of linear arrays
  85. Hyaline cartilage is found primarily on ________ and provides...
    joint surfaces (articular cartilage); a compressible surface
  86. Elastic cartilage is found... (3)
    ear, nose, and trachea
  87. Fibrocartilage has higher ________ content than hyaline cartilage, causing it to...
    collagen; be tougher yet remain flexible
  88. Fibrocartilage is found... (2)
    intervertebral discs, symphasis between certain bones