Anatomy- Abdomen.txt

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Anatomy- Abdomen.txt
2014-11-11 16:09:30
abdomen anatomy

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  1. The cranial boundary of the abdominal cavity is the _____________; the caudal boundary is the ____________.
    diaphragm; pelvic cavity
  2. What are the dorsal boundaries of the abdominal cavity?
    lumbar and sacral vertebrae and paired hypaxial muscles
  3. What is the ventral boundary of the abdominal cavity?
    rectus abdominis m.
  4. Fibrous seam in which the aponeuroses of the right and left oblique and transverse abdominal muscles come together.
    linea alba
  5. The linea alba extends from the ___________ to the _____________.
    xyphoid process; symphasis pelvis
  6. Aponeuroses of the oblique and transverse abdominal muscles.
    rectus sheath
  7. Potential space between the external and internal abdominal oblique muscles that extends between the deep and superficial openings (rings).
    inguinal canal
  8. The deep inguinal ring leads from the __________ to the __________; the superficial inguinal ring leads from the _________ to the _________.
    inguinal canal; abdominal cavity; inguinal cavity; subcutaneous tissues of the groin
  9. The fibers of the external abdominal oblique m. run ___________.
  10. The fibers of the internal abdominal oblique run ____________.
  11. The transversus abdominus is associated with the ____________.
    transversalis fascia
  12. A strong collagenous mass cranial to the pubic bone.
    prepubic tendon
  13. A connective tissue-filled fissure b/w the abdominal muscles and their aponeuroses, connecting b/w the two inguinal rings.
    inguinal canal
  14. What structures pass through the inguinal canal? (4)
    external pudendal a. & v., genitofemoral n., vaginal process (females), spermatic cord (ductus deferens and testicular a. and v. in males)
  15. The cranial epigastric a. branches from the ___________ and runs on the dorsal aspect of the _____________.
    internal thoracic artery; rectus abdominis m.
  16. The caudal epigastric a. branches from the _____________; it supplies the...
    pudendoepigastric trunk; muscles of the abdominal wall
  17. The cranial abdominal a. branches from the ________ right around the caudal aspect of the ________.
    aorta; 13th (last) rib where the adrenal glands are
  18. The deep circumflex iliac a. branches from the _________ on the left and right sides, and they supply the ____________.
    aorta; muscles of the abdominal wall
  19. Lumbar nerves 1-4 are affected with a...
    lateral approach to abdominal surgery, especially in large animals
  20. Thoracic nerve 13 is the ___________
    costoabdominal nerve
  21. The cranial superficial epigastric a. runs between the ___________ and the _______; it supplies the...
    abdominal muscle; skin; region cranial to the umbilicus
  22. The caudal superficial epigastric a. supplies the _________.
  23. The caudal epigastric a. courses along the lateral border of the ___________ then it courses on the deep aspect of the __________, where it...
    rectus abdominis m..; rectus abdominis m.; anastomoses with the cranial epigastric a.
  24. The potential space formed by the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum.
    peritoneal cavity
  25. Serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall and visceral organs in the abdominal cavity and its coextensive pelvic and scrotal cavities.
  26. The connective tissue that attaches the peritoneum to the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, and ribs.
    transversalis fascia
  27. The serous covering of the inner surface of the walls of the abdominal, pelvic, and scrotal cavities.
    parietal peritoneum
  28. The serous covering of the organs of the abdominal, pelvic, and scrotal cavities.
    visceral peritoneum
  29. The double-layered serosa connecting the parietal and visceral peritoneum, including the mesenteries, omentum, ligaments, and folds.
    connecting peritoneum
  30. ____________ consists of double sheets of peritoneum that pass from the abdominal wall to the intestine.
  31. The mesenteric lymph nodes drain the...
    jejunum, ilium, and pancreas
  32. The mesenteric lymph nodes drain into the ___________.
    cisterna chyli
  33. Doubles layers of peritoneum that pass from a wall to an organ, or from an organ to another organ, and are usually narrow and contain few vessels.
  34. Double-layered connecting peritoneum between the stomach and abdominal organs or abdominal wall.
  35. The caudoventral extension of the two layers of connecting peritoneum, connecting b/w the dorsal body wall.
    greater omentum
  36. The superficial leaf of the greater omentum is adjacent to the __________.
    body wall on the ventral aspect of the abdominal cavity
  37. The deef leaf of the greater omentum is adjacent to the ___________.
    abdominal organs, dorsal to the superficial leaf
  38. Cavity b/w the superficial leaf and deep leaf of the greater omentum.
    omental bursa
  39. Connecting peritoneum that connects b/w the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver.
    lesser omentum
  40. The portion of the lesser omentum b/w the liver and the duodenum.
    hepatoduodenal ligament
  41. The portion of the lesser omentum b/w the liver and the stomach.
    hepatogastric ligament
  42. An opening of the omental bursa into the main peritoneal cavity that lies on the right of the median plane.
    epiploic/omental foramen
  43. The epiploic/omental foramen is bounded dorsally by the _________ and ventrally by the ________.
    caudal vena cava; portal vein
  44. The spleen is located in the _____________ region parallel to the __________ of the stomach.
    left hypogastric; greater curvature
  45. In the fetus, the spleen produces __________; in the adult, it stores _______ and ________, produces _________, and destroys ________.
    red blood cells; RBCs; iron; lymphocytes; senescent RBCs
  46. The ligament b/w the stomach and the spleen, connecting the peritoneum b/w them.
    gastrosplenic ligament
  47. The largest gland in the body.
  48. The visceral surface of the liver is in contact with...
    the stomach and the right kidney
  49. 6 functions of the liver.
    detoxification of drugs/toxins, metabolism of carbohydrates, plasma protein production, reduction and conjugation of some hormones, storage of glycogen
  50. The gall bladder is between the _________ and the _________ of the liver.
    right medial lobe; quadrate lobe
  51. What are the 6 lobes of the liver?
    left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, quadrate lobe, right medial lobe, right lateral lobe, caudate lobe
  52. There is a ________ in the visceral surface of the left lateral lobe of the liver.
    gastric impression
  53. The quadrate lobe of the liver contains a ______ for the _________.
    fossa; gall bladder
  54. The right medial lobe of the liver contains a _______ for the _______.
    fossa;; gall bladder
  55. The right lateral lobe of the liver touches the _______ end of the ___________.
    cranial; right kidney
  56. What are the processes of the caudate lobe of the liver?
    papillary process, caudate process
  57. The caudate process of the caudate lobe of the liver touches the right kidney at the _________; they are connected by the _________.
    renal fossa; hepatorenal ligament
  58. The strong, mainly collagenous tissue layers closely investing the liver's surface and interior vascular and nervous elements.
    fibrous capsule
  59. The liver is covered by ___________.
    visceral peritoneum
  60. The liver attaches to the body wall and other organs via the __________.
  61. The ligament that is a fold of the peritoneum from the liver to the umbilicus.
    falciform ligament
  62. The free border of the falciform ligament.
    the round ligament of the liver
  63. Ligaments from the crura of the diaphragm to the dorsal parts of the right and left lateral lobes.
    right and left triangular ligaments
  64. Reflection of the peritoneum from the diaphragmatic surface of the liver (peritoneal surface) onto the crura of the diaphragm; goes around caudal vena cava and hepatic veins.
    coronary ligament
  65. Ligament from the caudate process of the caudate lobe of the liver to the right kidney.
    hepatorenal lilgament
  66. the lesser omentum forms what two ligaments?
    hepatoduodenal ligament (liver to duodenum) and hepatogastric ligament (liver to stomach)
  67. Sac that lie in a fossa between the quadrate and right medial lobes of the liver.
    gall bladder
  68. What is the function of the gall bladder?
    store and concentrates biles that was produced in the liver
  69. Bile travels from the liver to the gall bladder via the _________.
    hepatic ducts
  70. The hepatic ducts join the ________ of the gall bladder to form the _______.
    cystic duct; bile duct
  71. The common bile duct terminates on the ____________ next to the __________.
    major duodenal papilla; pancreatic duct
  72. Horses do not have a __________; its _______ join to form the bile duct.
    gall bladder; hepatic ducts
  73. The V-shape gland that consists of two limbs/lobes that diverge from the vicinity of the pylorus and are joined by the body.
  74. The left lobe of the pancreas lies within the ________ of the ________, caudal to the _________ and cranial to the _________.
    deep sheet; greater omentum; stomach; transverse colon
  75. The right lobe of the pancreas lies next to the ___________ within the ____________.
    descending duodenum; mesoduodenum
  76. The body of the pancreas lies at the __________.
  77. The pancreatic duct opens at the __________; the accessory pancreatic duct opens at the __________.
    major duodenal papilla; minor duodenal papilla
  78. The foregut of the embryonic primitive gut tube differentiates into the...
    pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and first part of the duodenum
  79. The midgut of the embryonic gut tube differentiates into the...
    distal part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and larger part of the colon
  80. The hindgut of the embryonic gut tube differentiates into the...
    distal part of the colon, rectum, and part of the urogenital tract
  81. The largest dilation of the GI tract, a musculoglandular organ interposed b/w the esophagus and the small intestine.
  82. What are the 4 parts of the canine stomach?
    cardiac part, fundus, body, pyloric part
  83. The gastric glands produce... (2)
    mucous and gastric enzymes
  84. Folds of the stomach wall.
  85. The smallest part of the stomach and is situated nearest the esophagus.
    cardiac part
  86. The cardiac part of the stomach produces ____________.
  87. The dome-shaped part of the stomach that lies to the left and dorsal to the cardiac part.
  88. The fundus produces _________.
    gastric juice
  89. The large middle portion of the stomach,the body, extends from the __________ on the right to the ___________ part on the left.
    pyloric part; fundus
  90. The body of the stomach produces ___________.
    gastric juice
  91. The distal third of the stomach, comprised of the proximal thin-walled __________, which narrows to a canal before joining the duodenum.
    Pyloric part; pyloric antrum
  92. The pyloric part of the stomach joins with the duodenum at the _________, called the ________.
    sphincter; pylorus
  93. The pyloric part of the stomach produces _______.
  94. The cardia of the stomach is located at a fixed point opposite the _________.
    left 9th intercostal space
  95. The full stomach lies in contact with the ____________ and protrudes beyond the costal arches, displacing the __________.
    ventral abdominal wall; intestinal mass
  96. The principal site of digestion and absorption, extending from the pylorus of the stomach to the large intestine and divided into three parts.
    small intestine
  97. The 3 parts of the small intestine.
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  98. The _________ of the duodenum is next to the pylorus of the stomach.
    cranial duodenal flexure
  99. Mesentery of the duodenum that originates at the dorsal abdominal wall and the root of the mesentery and extends to the duodenum; encloses the right lobe of the pancreas.
  100. The part of the duodenum b/w the descending duodenum and the ascending duodenum.
    caudal duodenal flexure
  101. The ________ of the duodenum travels on the left side of the root of the mesentery,
    ascending duodenum
  102. The part of the duodenum after the ascending part.
    duodenojejunal flexure
  103. The longest part of the small intestine, occupying large portion of the caudoventral abdomen.
  104. The jejunum is supported by the __________ that is attached to the short root of the mesentery from the dorsal abdominal midline at L2.
  105. The ____________ artery is in the root of the jejunal mesentery.
    cranial mesenteric
  106. What lymph nodes are in the root of the mesentery?
    mesenteric (jejunal) lymph nodes
  107. The shortest and most distal part of the small intestine.
  108. Grossly, you can distinguish the ileum from the jejunum by locating the __________.
    antimesenteric ileal artery
  109. The flow of ingesta is regulated through the _________by the _______.
    ileocolic orifice; ileocolic sphincter
  110. The ileum is suspended by the _______ and ________.
    mesentery; mesocolon
  111. The ileum is connected to the cecum via the _________.
    ileocolic fold
  112. The large intestine extends from the ________ to the ________, and its function is to...
    ileum; anus; dehydrate fecal contents by absorbing water
  113. The four parts of the large intestine.
    cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal
  114. Blind diveritculum at the beginning of the colon.
  115. The cecum lies to the ________ of the ___________.
    right; root of the mesentery
  116. The cecum communicates with the ascending colon through the _________ adjacent to the _________.
    cecocolic orifice; ileocolic orifice
  117. The feline cecum can be palpated by reference to the form _________ at the level of L4.
    ileocolic junction
  118. The colon is located _______ in the abdomen and suspended by the ________.
    dorsally; mesocolon
  119. The ascending colon lies to the _______ of the root of the mesentery,where the _______ is located.
    right; right colic flexure
  120. The transverse colon lies ________ to the root of the mesentery, where the _________ is located.
    cranial; left colic flexure
  121. The descending colon lie on the ________ region of the abdomen.
    dorsal left
  122. The continuation of the descending colon through the pelvis, beginning at the pelvic inlet.
  123. A short termination of the alimentary canal that is a continuation of the rectum to the anus.
    anal canal
  124. Structures located b/w internal and external sphincters.
    anal sacs (paranal sinuses)
  125. If the ducts of the anal glands become plugged, what can result?
    constipation, rupture, anal fistula
  126. The external opening of the alimentary canal.