Card Set Information
Airways conduct gases to and from ________ to _________.
alveoli; external environment
The _________ protects the entrance of the trachea from ___________; it also contains ________.
larynx; matter from the pharynx; elastic vocal cords
What are the 2 zones of the lower airways?
conducting zone, respiratory zone
The conducting zone is from the ______ to the _______.
trachea; terminal bronchioles
Gas exchange occurs in the ___________ zone.
The respiratory zone extends from the ____________ to the ___________.
respiratory bronchioles; alveolar saccules
4 functions of conducting airways?
conducting air in and out of the lungs, clearance of inhales foreign matter, warms and moistens inhaled air, vocalization
The nasal mucosa is made up of __________, __________ epithelium and loose connective tissue called ____________.
tall, pseudostratified columnar, ciliated; lamina propria
The lamina propria of the nasal mucosa contains... (3)
serous glands, mucous glands, vasculature
The olfactory epithelium is much _______ than the nasal epithelium; it is ___________ with a __________.
taller; pseudostratified; apical ciliary knob
The olfactory epithelium does not contain __________.
goblet cells (mucous glands)
The vomeronasal organ is a ___________ organ that projects out of the __________.
C-shaped; nasal septum
The larynx is lined by _______________ epithelium, which transitions to _____________ at the proximal end of the trachea.
stratified squamous; respiratory
The trachea has elastic walls, strengthened by...
cartilaginous C-shaped open rings
The walls of the bronchi that branch from the trachea contain ________ and _________; these branch to _________, which are made of _______.
cartilage; smooth muscle; prominent smooth muscle
The smallest airway in which no gas exchange occurs are __________, which branch from the __________.
terminal bronchioles; bronchioles
The conducting zone is lined by _________ epithelium
The depth of the ____________ in the conducting zone is very important in mucociliary clearance because if it is too thick,...
serous layer; cilia cannot reach the mucous to push particulates in the mucous
During mucociliary clearance, cilia beat in the ___________ to propel mucous up into the __________.
serous layer; pharynx
The trachea is lined by _________ epithelial cells with _______.
tell pseudostratified coulumnar; cilia
In the trachea, under the lamina propria, the submucosa contain __________.
The submucosa of the trachea merges with the characteristic __________.
The bronchi are lined by ____________ epithelial cells with _______, containing ________ and __________.
pseudostratified coulumnar; cilia; goblet cells; serous cells
In the bronchi, there is a layer of ________ below the lamina propia; the cartilage is composed of ___________.
spiral smooth muscle; flattened interconnected plates
The bronchioles are lined by _____________ epithelial cells with ______.
columnar to cuboidal; cilia
The submucosa below the lamina propria of the bronchioles is made of ______________ and no _____________.
prominent smooth muscle bands and no submucosal glands
The bronchioles do NOT contain ___________.
The conducting zone ends with _________, and the respiratory zone ends at _________.
terminal bronchioles; terminal alveolar saccules
The respiratory bronchioles are lined by __________, ___________ epithelial cells.
In the respiratory bronchioles, there is minimal _________ and __________, and there is NO ________ in the epithelium.
lamina propria; submucosa; goblet cells
In the epithelium of alveolar ducts, ____________ predominate.
The opening of alveolar sacs and alveolar in the alveolar ducts are visible as...
small rings of smooth muscle, collagen, and elastin fibers
Saccules composed of thin-walled, open-ended, hollow sacs continuous with alveolar ducts.
Most of the alveolar lining consists of a single layer of...
thin, flat alveolar type I cells
There are small numbers of ____________ among AT I cells lining the alveoli; these cells synthesize _________ and divide to replace damaged __________.
alveolar type II; pulmonary surfactant; AT I cells
At the blood interface of the alveoli, the ______ underlies the very thin interstitium.
Alveolar type I cells are _________ epithelial cells that primarily serve as a ____________.
squamous; thin gas exchange barrier
Alveolar type II cells are ________ epithelial cells that project into the ______ and contain large _______ that produce ________.
rounded; alveoli; vacuoles; surfactant phospholipids and proteins
Alveolar macrophages contain prominent _________ that phagocytize _______ and _________.
lysozomes; particulates; bacteria
The visceral pleura of the lungs is lined by ____________ with a thick underlying _________, which extends into the parenchyma as _______.
flattened mesothelial; connective tissue layer; fibrous septa.