Unit 3 Cards: genes and heredity

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garippallacslv
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Unit 3 Cards: genes and heredity
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2014-11-18 16:57:47
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genes heredity dna
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unit 3 study cards
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  1. DNA
    double helix genetic material
  2. interphase
    chromosomes are copied
  3. prophase
    • mitosis begins, chromosomes get thicker, nuclear membrane dissolves
  4. metaphase
    chromosomes line up at the equator
  5. anaphase
    • chromosomes separate
  6. telophase
    • membrane pinches in, two new nuclei form
  7. cytokinesis
    cell divides
  8. meiosis
    • reduction division
    • 2n --> n
    • diploid --> haploid
  9. gametes
    sex cells
  10. stages of meiosis
  11. Nucleotide
    building block of DNA
  12. replication
    dna makes dna
  13. transcription
    dna makes rna
  14. translation
    rna makes protein
  15. codon
    set of three bases
  16. polypeptide
    large protein
  17. initiation
    protein synthesis
  18. gene expression
    flow of genetic information from genes to proteins
  19. operons
    group of regulatory units
  20. Transcriptional Gene regulation
    DNA makes RNA and that RNA turns gene on/off
  21. gene regulation in prokaryotes
    • 1) transcription control
    • 2) post transcription control
    • 3) translation control
    • 4) post translation control
  22. Post Transcriptional gene regulation
    RNA is edited and that makes genes turn on/off
  23. translational gene expression
    rna makes protein and that protein turns genes on/off
  24. post transcriptional gene expression
    editing the protein turns genes on/off
  25. Mendels 1st law of segregation
    genes are donated at random
  26. Mendel's second law of independent assortment
    one trait being expressed does not change the probability of another gene's expression
  27. mendel's third law
    recessive genes are always masked by dominant
  28. incomplete dominance
    two alleles mixed and something in the middle

    brown and white make tan

    milk shake
  29. codominant alleles
    two alleles are expressed equally

    twist
  30. autosomal chromosomes
    22 pair, contains heredity
  31. sex chromosomes
    determine sex
  32. polygenic
    takes many genes to express a trait
  33. zygote
    the first cell made by a sperm (haploid) and egg (haploid) coming together
  34. gene
    basic unit of heredity
  35. allele

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