Psych quiz 6

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Psych quiz 6
2014-11-11 16:37:12
social psych

love, attraction, aggression
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  1. Need to Belong
    motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing positive  interactions
  2. Proximity
    geographical nearness. powerfully predicts liking
  3. mere-exposure effect
    tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
  4. matching phenomenon
    tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a good match in attractiveness and other traits
  5. physical attractiveness stereotype
    presumption that physically attractive people possesses other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good
  6. complementarity
    popularly supposed tendency in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other
  7. ingratiation
    use of strategies such as flattery by which people seek to gain another's favor
  8. reward theory of attraction
    we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
  9. passionate love
    states of intense longing for union with another. passionate lovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partners love and are disconsolate on losing it
  10. two factor theory of emotion
    arousal X its label=emotion
  11. secure attachment
    attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
  12. avoidant attachment
    attachments marked by discomfort or resistance in being close to others
  13. insecure attachment
    attachments marked by anxiety or ambulance
  14. equity
    condition in which the outcome people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it. they don't always need to be equal outcomes
  15. self disclosure
    revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  16. disclosure reciprocity
    tendency for one persons intimacy of self disclosure to match that of a conversational partner
  17. Attraction
    Interpersonal attraction: desire to approach another individual

    • People have many theories: birds of a feather flock together or opposites attract
    • What really matters?
    • Situation
    • Characteristics of others
    • Interaction between situation and characteristics
  18. Proximity
    • Physical closeness is a critical factor in who we like
    • In a dorm, friends tend to live
    • close together. People who live far apart are less likely to become friends

    • People who live close to the
    • stairwell had more friends than people who lived in the middle of the building

    • Even with modern communication,
    • most interactions occur with people in our immediate proximity
  19. Familiarity
    • Mere exposure hypothesis-repeated exposure to something is sufficient to increase
    • attraction

    Moreland (1992). Liking for a female confederate increased based on the number of times she came to class

    True subliminal effect
  20. Anxiety
    External events can lead people to affiliate, anxiety being the most powerful

    • Schachter (1959) told female college students that they would receive a series of electrical shocks
    • “high anxiety”: painful shocks
    • “low anxiety”: virtually painless, a tickle
    • 10 minute wait while the equipment was set up
    • Wait alone or with another participant in the study
    • 63% high anxiety subjects wanted to be with someone else, whereas only 33% low
    • anxiety did
    • Misery loves company
  21. Why Affiliate?
    • Social distraction? Keep your mind off what is about to happen.
    • If this is true, anyone would be a good “waiting mate”
    • Can wait with someone who is waiting to see her advisor (not in experiment) or alone
    • Less than 5% wanted to be with person not in experiment
    • Misery does not love company. Misery loves miserable company

    • Socialcomparison? Gain information about upcoming event
    • In particular, interested in emotional reaction of others
    • If that is true, talking is unimportant, can get emotional information from
    • nonverbal channels
    • Same experiment, only can’t talk to “waiting mate” or wait alone
    • High anxiety wanted to wait with silent partner rather than alone
  22. Affiliation Conclusion
    • Mere presence of others can fulfill affiliative need
    • Some situations reduce affiliative need (anger, embarrassment)
  23. Characteristics of Others
    • First thing we often notice is attractiveness of others
    • Computer dating study-desire to see the person again depends on how attractive the partner was
    • Attractiveness matters only a little in the rate of social interaction
  24. Physical Attraction Stereotype
    • Physical attractiveness stereotype: “What is beautiful is good”
    • Assume attractive people have more socially desirable traits than unattractive people (sociable, dominant, warm, healthy, intelligent, etc)
    • Occurs in almost all cultures-attractive people are what that culture values
    • Affects perception of infants, children (punish attractive children less)
    • Conversely, babies displayed more positive affect when they played with an attractive than an unattractive stranger

    • Even impacts money: in a 1991 study of MBA graduates:
    • Attractive men’s starting salary was $2,200 more than unattractive men
    • Attractive women earned $4,200/year more than unattractive women
    • Attractive men earn $5,200/year than unattractive men
    • Being 20% overweight reduced a man’s starting salary by more than $2,000
  25. Is the stereotype accurate?
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Snyder (1977)Men talk to women on the telephone 
    • Given pictures of attractive or unattractive woman
    • Tape conversation
    • Men talking to (perceived) attractive women were judged as more outgoing and sociable than men talking to (perceived) unattractive women
    • Judges rated the women whose male partner thought they were attractive as more warm, confident and attractive!!! (works with men too
  26. Culture and Physical Beauty
    • Within a culture and time frame, people typically agree on attractiveness
    • Between cultures and times, attractiveness varies, however (weight, tanning)
  27. Physical Characteristics
    • Features of attractive people
    • Facial symmetry
    • Average faces are more attractive
    • Immature features in women (large eyes, small nose, full lips, small chin, delicate jaw)
    • Mature features in men (broad forehead, thick eyebrows, thin lips, large jaw) and immature features (large eyes)
  28. Contrast Effect
    • People are judged more attractive after viewing an unattractive target
    • People are judged more unattractive after viewing an attractive target
    • Stronger men than women
    • Brown (1992) had women judge their own attractiveness after exposure to an attractive
    • or unattractive man or woman
  29. Interaction Between Situation
    & Characteristics
    • Sometimes attraction depends on the match (or mismatch) between our personal characteristics and the situation
    • Match on physical attractiveness.
    • Want beauty, but know our limitations.
    • People similar in attractiveness are more likely to date, get married, and stay married
    • Even works in friendships (a large difference can strain a friendship)
    • Matching phenomenon
  30. Similarity
    • We like people with similar backgrounds (demographics) more than people with dissimilar origins
    • Strong predictor of relationship success
  31. Attitudinal Similarity
    • Even more important is a matching between attitudes
    • Byrne (1965) “getting to know you” study
    • Actually, no one else was there, tailor answers to match participant’s responses (bogus stranger)
    • Like other person more the more similar their attitudes are to our own
  32. Why are similar others attractive?
    • Social comparison. Other people validate our view points. Disagreement is negative, hence we avoid people who disagree with us
    • Familiarity. We like what is familiar. People who are similar seem more familiar
    • Balance theory. People desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts and feelings
  33. Balance Theory
  34. Mismatches and attraction
    • Rarely, complementary (not opposite) attitudes are more attractive
    • Dominants are more satisfied interacting with submissive people rather than dominant people
    • Compatible fit between differences
    • Also looks-for-status exchange: men want beauty, advertise wealth; women want status, advertise youth
  35. We like those who like us
    • Finally, we like people who like us (consistent with balance theory)Curtis and Miller (1986) Getting to know you experiment
    • Experimenter told one partner that the other person either liked or disliked them
    • Ten minute discussion
    • Targets who believed the perceiver liked them disclosed more, had more pleasant tone of voice, disagreed less
    • Perceivers liked targets who had been led to believe that they were liked
  36. Conclusion
    • Attraction depends on
    • The situation
    • The other’s characteristics
    • The interaction between the situation and the other’s characteristic
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy is very strong in attraction
  37. Love
    • What does love feel like?
    • Paul: “Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things
    • ”Blake: “Love seeketh only self to please, to bind another to its delight
    • ”Springsteen: “Ooh, ooh, I gotta crush on you”
    • Many different components, may differ between relationships, change over time
    • Several different typologies
    • Love styles
    • Triangular Theory
  38. Love
    • Lee (1977) likened love to colors
    • Primary colors
    • Eros (passionate love)
    • Ludus (game-playing love)
    • Storge (friendship love)
    • Secondary colors (combination of primary colors)
    • Pragma (pragmatic love) = storge + ludus
    • Mania (possessive love) = eros + ludus
    • Agape (altruistic love) = eros + storge
    • All are equally valid, none are better than the other
    • Can change over time; have different relationship with different styles
  39. Measuring
    Love Styles
    • Eros
    • My lover and I were attracted to each other immediately after we first met.
    • Our love making is very intense and satisfying.
    • My lover fits my ideal standards of physical beauty/handsomeness.
    • Ludus
    • I try to keep my lover a little uncertain about my commitment to him/her.
    • I have sometimes had to keep two of my lovers from finding out about each other.
    • I enjoy playing the “game of love” with a number of different partners.
    • Storge
    • It is hard to say exactly when my lover and I fell in love (Our friendship merged gradually into love over time).
    • Love is really a deep friendship, not a mysterious, mystical emotion.
    • My most satisfying love relationships have developed from good friendships.
    • Pragma
    • I consider what a person is going to become in life before I commit myself to him/her.
    • I try to play my life carefully before choosing a lover.
    • A main consideration in choosing a lover is how he/she reflects on my family.
    • Mania
    • Sometimes I get so excited about being in love that I can’t sleep.
    • When I am in love, I have trouble concentrating on anything else
    • .If my lover ignores me for a while, I sometimes do stupid things to get his/her attention back.
    • Agape
    • I would rather suffer myself than let my lover suffer.
    • I cannot be happy unless
    • I place my lover’s happiness before my own.
    • I would endure all things for the sake of my lover.
  40. Triangular
    Theory of Love
    • Three components, which combine to make love
    • Each corner of the triangle is part of love
    • Passion
    • Commitment
    • Intimacy
    • Components combine in different proportions for the experience of love (7 types in all)
  41. Passion
    • •Passionate love: an intense longing
    • for union with another
    • •Physiological response-body rush,
    • stomach in a knot, may even alter brain chemistry
    • •May be due to attribution of
    • arousal
    • •See partner as perfect and ideal
    • •Experienced most intensely early in the
    • relationship; may be a product of novelty
    • •Men tend to experience passionate
    • love to a greater extent than women
  42. Intimacy
    or Companionate Love
    More certain and dependable type of love; like friends“The affection we feel for those whom our lives are deeply entwined”See partner in a more realistic light, although in good relationships still see imperfections in the best possible lightTrust is critical part of companionate love
  43. Commitment
    • •A decision to stay together both short term (I love this person) and long term (I
    • will continue to love this person and be with him or her)
    • •Only component under cognitive control
    • –Accommodation
    • –Effects on perceiving other’s
    • attractiveness
  44. Course
    of Relationships
    • •Starting relationships
    • –Information seeking
    • –Self-disclosure
    • •Maintaining relationships
    • –Attachment
    • –Equity
    • –Partner-enhancing
    • biases
    • •Ending relationships
    • –Comparison
    • levels
    • –Conflict styles
  45. Starting
    • •Major goal in the beginning of a relationship is to gain knowledge about the other
    • person
    • –reduce uncertainty about their
    • feelings toward us
    • –gauge the stability of those
    • feelings as well
    • •Interestingly,we believe the other person has more power to determine the outcome than we do;
    • both parties believe the other person has control
  46. Information
    • •We have various ways of seeking information about a potential partner
    • •Three ways to gather information: active, passive, and interactive
    • •No method is better than another; need to trade off efficiency and politeness
    • •Flirting is an key means of gathering information
  47. Disclosure
    • Main way to develop and deepen a relationship is through self-disclosure
    • Self-disclosure: the revealing of personal information about oneself to other people
    • People who do not disclose tend to have dysfunctional relationships and are lonelier than people who disclose
  48. Social
    Penetration Theory
    • •Development of a relationship
    • involves gradual change in discussion from superficial topics to more intimate
    • issues
    • •First meet, trivial conversations
    • (sports, weather, popular culture)
    • •If that is rewarding, broaden and deepen conversation to cover a wider range of topics and more personal
    • information
    • •Proper pacing is important, especially in the beginning
    • –norm of self-disclosure reciprocity
  49. Maintaining Relationships
    • •Attachment
    • theory (personality and relationships)
    • •Equity (are you happy, who is guilty?)
    • •Partner-enhancing biases (seeing each other in the best possible light)
  50. Attachment Theory
    • •Attachment is the strong emotional bond between two individuals (originally mother and baby, generalized to adult relationships)
    • •Ainsworth (1989) identified three types of attachment styles based on the relationship
    • between infants and their mothers
    • •Tested in the Strange Situation
  51. Attachment
    •Secure attachment style

    • –characterized by trust, a lack of concern about being abandoned, and a feeling of being valued and well-liked
    • –caregivers are sensitive and responsive to infants distress and needs
    • •Avoidant attachment style
    • –characterized by a lack of trust and a suppression of attachment needs
    • –caregivers tend to be aloof and distant
    • •Anxious-ambivalent attachment style
    • –characterized by a concern that others will not return affection
    • –caregivers are inconsistent and overbearing with affection
  52. Adult
    Attachment Styles
    • •These infant attachment styles
    • reappear in adult relationships (although it is unclear if it due to how the
    • person was treated as an infant)

    • •I find it relatively easy to get
    • close to other and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on
    • me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too
    • close to me

    • •I am somewhat uncomfortable being
    • close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to
    • allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and
    • often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being

    • •I find that others are reluctant to
    • get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love
    • me or won’t stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and
    • this desire sometimes scares people away
  53. Attachment
    and Relationships
    • •Secure-secure
    • couples are attracted to each other and have most stable relationships
    • •Avoidant-secure and anxious-secure pairings are less stable than secure-secure relationships
    • •Insecure attachments (anxious-anxious and avoidant-avoidant relationships) are almost
    • never seen
  54. Equity Theory
    • •How rewards and costs are analyzed in intimate relationships
    • •People don’t try to maximize rewards and minimize costs but instead want ratio of
    • rewards and costs to be equal for both partners
    • –If one partner gets more rewards
    • from the relationship but also makes greater contribution, the relationship is
    • still equitable
  55. Results
    of Equity Theory
    • •Partner who is over-benefited should feel guilty
    • •Partner who is under-benefited should feel angry and depressed
    • •What about the better than average effect?
    • •Some argue that relationships are communal—don’t keep track of rewards and costs at
    •    all
  56. Partner
    Enhancing Biases
    • •We are meaner to those we love than we are to strangers
    • •Married people were more polite and agreeable when working with strangers than with
    • their spouse
    • –They criticized and belittled their
    • spouse
    • –This can weaken emotional bonds and
    • lead to relationship trouble
  57. Negative Reciprocity Cycle
    • •Attributions for negative and positive events
    • •In unhappy couples, positive behaviors are ignored or discounted and negative
    • behaviors are reciprocated
    • •Happy couples avoid this; see their partner’s behavior in the most positive light and
    • discount negative actions
  58. Positive Illusions
    • •People tend to see their partners
    • are more positively than the partner viewed him or herself
    • •Seeing one’s partner in the best
    • possible light was related to relationship satisfaction for both people
    • •Over time, people with stronger
    • illusions become more satisfied (but the converse wasn’t true)
    • •Another self-fulfilling prophecy-the more you value your partner, the better your partner begins to view him or herself and the better the relationship becomes (what about low
    • SE?)
  59. Ending
    • •The main reasons for ending
    • relationships can be generally categorized into 6 categories
    • –Lack of skills in self expression
    • –Role breaking
    • –Deception
    • –Boredom
    • –Difficulty of maintenance
    • –Conflict (although not all conflict is bad; reoccurring conflict about unresolved issues
    • signals a problem)
    • •Comparison Levels (should I stay or
    • go?)
    • •Conflict Styles (how do you handle
    • leaving?)
  60. Comparison
    • Just because you have these problems, doesn’t mean you will end the relationship
    • Deciding to end the relationship is a complicated process
    • Comparison levels are importantIs the relationship meeting your standards?
    • What are your alternatives?
  61. Process
    of ending relationships



    • •Grave
    • dressing
  62. Costs
    of Ending Relationships
    • Ending relationships is harder on men than women (although women find it more difficult to end relationships) and harder on people and in cultures with weaker social support networks
    • Breakees are more miserable than breakers, whereas mutual break ups fell in the middle (may be related to degree of control
  63. Coping with troubles
    • •Caryl Rusbult (1986) identified 4 strategies
    • –Neglect: Ignore partners, spend less time with them
    • –Exit: Get up and go
    • –Voice: discuss problems, seek compromises
    • –Loyalty: Hope things will get better
    • •Moderated by femininity and perceived alternatives
  64. Conclusion
    • •Relationships (of all sorts) are the source of our greatest pleasure and worst pain
    • •Some of the tribulations of relationships can be avoided if we approach
    • relationships in a more intelligent, well-informed manner
    • •Our feelings and thoughts as we enter a relationship have a large impact on the
    • eventual outcome of that relationship
  65. instinctive behavior
    innate unlearned behavior exhibited by all members of a species
  66. aggression
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
  67. hostile aggression
    aggression that springs from anger its goal is to inquire
  68. instrumental aggression
    aggression that aims to injure but only as a means to some other end.
  69. frustration aggression theory
    the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress
  70. frustration
    blocking of goal directed behavior
  71. displacement
    redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of frustration. Generally the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
  72. relative deprivation
    perception that one is less well off than other with whom one compares oneself
  73. social learning theory
    theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
  74. prosocial behavior
    positive constructive helpful social behavior the opposite of anti social behavior
  75. catharsis
    • emotional release 
    • drive is reduced when one releases aggressive energy either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.