A.P. Biology Chapter 11: Cell Communication

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A.P. Biology Chapter 11: Cell Communication
2014-11-11 21:51:27

Chapter 11 notes
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  1. signal transduction pathway:
    a series of steps by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response
  2. 1. in local signaling, animal cells may communicate by:
    2. or by using
    • 1. direct contact, or cell-cell recognition
    • 2. local regulators, messenger molecules that travel only short distances
  3. in long distance signaling, plants and animals use chemicals called:
  4. the ability of a cell to respond to a signal depends on whether or not it has a receptor specific to that signal
  5. Earl W. Sutherland discovered how the hormone epinephrine acts of cells. He suggested that cells receiving signals went through 3 processes (RTR):
    • 1. Reception
    • 2. Transduction
    • 3. Response
  6. the binding between a signal molecule (ligand), and receptor is highly specific
  7. a shape change in a receptor is often the initial transduction of the signal
    -most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins
  8. 3 main types of membrane receptors:
    • 1. G protein-coupled receptors
    • 2. receptor tyrosine kinases
    • 3. ion channel receptors
  9. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs):
    • the largest family of cell-surface receptors
    • a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G Protein (acts as an on/off switch; if GDP is bound to the G protein, the G protein is inactive)
  10. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs):
    • membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines
    • can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once
    • abnormal functioning of RTKs is associated with many types of cancers