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- any component of a diet that serves a useful function
- source of 1 or more nutrients:
- (no feeding meat meal because of mad cow diseases)
8 major categories of feedstuffs
- Dry roughages
- Ensiled roughages
- High-Energy concentrates
- ->70% TDN <18% Crude Fiber
- Protein Sources
- -20% CP
What would degrade hay quality?
- Rain, time harvested, weeds, sun bleached,
- Production goes down from too much water through pasture because it goes right through the cow, they can't get enough dry matter
- Urea in small amount can be put in as nitrogen source, upping protein
- Described as the total plant material available to be consumed by an animal.
- High CF and digestibility of protein and energy is usually lower
- In a forage you are consuming the whole plant
- Contain high amounts of cell walls
- Nearly completely indigestible
- Associated with structural CHO function
- Bound to some plant proteins
- Complexes are formed to block enzymes (lignin/cellulose/hemicellulose)
- The more mature the grass or legume the more lignin
- 1st aerobic organisms start to grow, then replaced by anaerobic
- Anaerobic fermentation produces organic acids-increasing acidity that kills off the microbes and preserves the ensiled feedstuff, pH reduced to 4
Anaerobic vs aerobic
- Anaerobic: does not like air
- Aerobic: organisms need air
Why do pastures and forages get less nutrients?
They have less nutrients because the stocks grow longer and become more fibrous
Why is it important to rotate crops?
important to rotate crops on fields and put carbon back into the soil
- Designed to have a lot of starch
- Primary cereal grain for ruminants in the U.S.
- High energy
- Low in calcium
- CP 10%
- TDN 89%
- sorghum deal with heat and drought better than corn
- CP 11%
- TDN 86%
- Millet primarily in Asia and Africa
- --in the US Proso millet
- --Less water
- Normally grown for human consumption
- Developed for flour milling qualities
- Nearly as much produced as rice
- Amino acid distribution better than corn especially for lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cystine, and histidine
- CP 14%
- TDN 89%
- Not much for humans-except for brewing
- 2.4% of feed grains
- 11-16% CP
- TDN 83%
- Higher levels of lysine, tryptophan, methionine, and cystine than corn
- 3rd most important cereal grain
- yet on 1.4% of feed grains for animals
- Lower yields than corn and wheat
- Protein is relatively high 11-14%
- Cereal grain-crossed between wheat and rhye
- CP 16%
- TDN 86%
- Leftover after flour semolina is extracted from wheat during milling.
- Wheat Mill Run(WMR) includes ground screenings form cleaning; remnant particles of bran, germ, and flour; and other offal from the milling process.
- WMR contains higher level of fiber, protein, and minerals than the parent grain, with reduced amounts of starch and energy
- WMR is 17%
- CP and 75% TDN
- A major source of sugar cane
- other sources are sugar beets, citrus fruits, starch, and wood
- Nutritional values:
- -CP 0-60%
- -ASH 6.9-12.3%
- -NFE 91-98%
- used for palatability and reduces dustiness in feed
Fats and Oils
- Exclusively used as an energy source
- 2.25 energy value as CHOs
- Can improve a ration by reducing dustiness and increasing palatability
- Generally increase absorption of fat-soluble nutrients
- Feed mills can benefit from lubrication for equipment
- for ruminants dietary needs are a combination of feeding the microorganisms of the rumen and
- in high producing cows some ingested proteins are passed through into the gut-protein quality is important in these circumstances.
- copra-cocnut meal
Millfeed Protein sources
- by-products of human food processing-all are 20%+CP
- -Corn gluten meal
- -Distillers dried grains
- -Brewers dried grains
- -coconut or copra meal
- Increased yield or growth can occur if enough essential amino acids are produced
- Providing enough N for the microbes in the form of ammonia and excess protein to be digested by the gut…bypass proteins
Passed through the rumen and the the microorganisms couldn't use it and the cow can directly use the protein
- Where fermentation occurs and where water and nutrients are absorbed.
- Microorganisms do the fermentation
- the catchall for metal and other hardware
- water mixes with saliva, regurgitation of the cud
- Where the water is absorbed into the blood stream
- Inorganic nutrients absorption
- Is the true stomach, most like a mono-gastric
- absorbs nutrients, acids and enzymes
What are the 10 or 9 essential amino acids?
We know that urea can be ingested into small amounts, but also excreted. What does deamination mean?
Deamination is too much amino acids turned into carbon chains and urea then excreted in the urine.
What are minerals not used for in an animal:
As an energy source
The three volatile fatty acids acetic, butyric, and propionic come from digestive breakdown from what nutrient source?
They are a breakdown of starches and sugars
What does CHO stand for as an abbreviation for nutrients?
- Carbohydrates (sugars)
"-ase" vs "-ose"
- -ase: enzymes
- -ose: sugars (Monosacharrides and Disacharrides)
Where is glucose stored in the animal and what is it stored as? (It is converted to this substance becoming a multi-branched polysaccharide and a primary energy source for the animal)
- [It is stored as a sugar (monosacharride)]
- Glycogen in the liver
Advantage of Roughage
- Roughage is fiber
- Fiber is needed to keep the digestive track going and move the whole process along
Why is corn used more often
Corn produces higher yields, out-yields wheat
What is Mill Run high in?
fiber, proteins, and minerals because it mostly contains endosperm not the top starchy part
What is one of the biggest protein sources?
- Found in the concentrations greater than 100 ppm
- Common salt (NaCl)
- Calcium (Ca)
- Phosphorus (P)
- Magnesium (Mg)
- Potassium (K)
- Sulpher (S)
Trace Elements <100ppm (parts per million)
- Copper (Cu)
- Iron (fe)
- Iodine (I)
- Manganese (Mn)
- Selenium (Se)
- Zinc (Zn)
- Cobalt (Co)
- concentration are affected by harvesting, storage, and processing
- yeast and microorganisms are excellent sources
- easily destroyed by heat and exposure to air and sunlight
- It is now common practice to add antioxidants to minimize vitamin destruction
- Natural sources such as germ, brans, high quality dehydrated grasses or legumes
Pro Vitamin A
carotene found in green and yellow plant sources- alfalfa