DSCI 201 Midterm 2
Card Set Information
DSCI 201 Midterm 2
Dairy Science 201 second Midterm
any component of a diet that serves a useful function
source of 1 or more nutrients:
(no feeding meat meal because of mad cow diseases)
8 major categories of feedstuffs
->70% TDN <18% Crude Fiber
What would degrade hay quality?
Rain, time harvested, weeds, sun bleached,
Production goes down from too much water through pasture because it goes right through the cow, they can't get enough dry matter
Urea in small amount can be put in as nitrogen source, upping protein
Described as the total plant material available to be consumed by an animal.
High CF and digestibility of protein and energy is usually lower
In a forage you are consuming the whole plant
Contain high amounts of cell walls
Nearly completely indigestible
Associated with structural CHO function
Bound to some plant proteins
Complexes are formed to block enzymes (lignin/cellulose/hemicellulose)
The more mature the grass or legume the more lignin
1st aerobic organisms start to grow, then replaced by anaerobic
Anaerobic fermentation produces organic acids-increasing acidity that kills off the microbes and preserves the ensiled feedstuff, pH reduced to 4
Anaerobic vs aerobic
: does not like air
: organisms need air
Why do pastures and forages get less nutrients?
They have less nutrients because the stocks grow longer and become more fibrous
Why is it important to rotate crops?
important to rotate crops on fields and put carbon back into the soil
Designed to have a lot of starch
Primary cereal grain for ruminants in the U.S.
Low in calcium
sorghum deal with heat and drought better than corn
Millet primarily in Asia and Africa
--in the US Proso millet
Normally grown for human consumption
Developed for flour milling qualities
Nearly as much produced as rice
Amino acid distribution better than corn especially for lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cystine, and histidine
Not much for humans-except for brewing
2.4% of feed grains
Higher levels of lysine, tryptophan, methionine, and cystine than corn
3rd most important cereal grain
yet on 1.4% of feed grains for animals
Lower yields than corn and wheat
Protein is relatively high 11-14%
Cereal grain-crossed between wheat and rhye
Leftover after flour semolina is extracted from wheat during milling.
Wheat Mill Run(WMR) includes ground screenings form cleaning; remnant particles of bran, germ, and flour; and other offal from the milling process.
WMR contains higher level of fiber, protein, and minerals than the parent grain, with reduced amounts of starch and energy
WMR is 17%
CP and 75% TDN
A major source of sugar cane
other sources are sugar beets, citrus fruits, starch, and wood
used for palatability and reduces dustiness in feed
Fats and Oils
Exclusively used as an energy source
2.25 energy value as CHOs
Can improve a ration by reducing dustiness and increasing palatability
Generally increase absorption of fat-soluble nutrients
Feed mills can benefit from lubrication for equipment
Total mixed rations
for ruminants dietary needs are a combination of feeding the microorganisms of the rumen and
in high producing cows some ingested proteins are passed through into the gut-protein quality is important in these circumstances.
Millfeed Protein sources
by-products of human food processing-all are 20%+CP
-Corn gluten meal
-Distillers dried grains
-Brewers dried grains
-coconut or copra meal
Increased yield or growth can occur if enough essential amino acids are produced
Providing enough N for the microbes in the form of ammonia and excess protein to be digested by the gut…bypass proteins
Passed through the rumen and the the microorganisms couldn't use it and the cow can directly use the protein
Draw 4 stomachs
Where fermentation occurs and where water and nutrients are absorbed.
Microorganisms do the fermentation
the catchall for metal and other hardware
water mixes with saliva, regurgitation of the cud
Where the water is absorbed into the blood stream
Inorganic nutrients absorption
Is the true stomach, most like a mono-gastric
absorbs nutrients, acids and enzymes
What are the 10 or 9 essential amino acids?
We know that urea can be ingested into small amounts, but also excreted. What does deamination mean?
Deamination is too much amino acids turned into carbon chains and urea then excreted in the urine.
What are minerals not used for in an animal:
As an energy source
The three volatile fatty acids acetic, butyric, and propionic come from digestive breakdown from what nutrient source?
They are a breakdown of starches and sugars
What does CHO stand for as an abbreviation for nutrients?
"-ase" vs "-ose"
: sugars (Monosacharrides and Disacharrides)
Where is glucose stored in the animal and what is it stored as? (It is converted to this substance becoming a multi-branched polysaccharide and a primary energy source for the animal)
[It is stored as a sugar (monosacharride)]
Glycogen in the liver
Advantage of Roughage
Roughage is fiber
Fiber is needed to keep the digestive track going and move the whole process along
Why is corn used more often
Corn produces higher yields, out-yields wheat
What is Mill Run high in?
fiber, proteins, and minerals because it mostly contains endosperm not the top starchy part
What is one of the biggest protein sources?
Found in the concentrations greater than 100 ppm
Common salt (NaCl)
Trace Elements <100ppm (parts per million)
concentration are affected by harvesting, storage, and processing
yeast and microorganisms are excellent sources
easily destroyed by heat and exposure to air and sunlight
It is now common practice to add antioxidants to minimize vitamin destruction
Natural sources such as germ, brans, high quality dehydrated grasses or legumes
Pro Vitamin A
carotene found in green and yellow plant sources- alfalfa