Chapter 12 Final Review: ID

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Chapter 12 Final Review: ID
2014-11-12 13:30:01
Test Three
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  1. Phosphoglycerides
    Hydroxyl groups at C1 and C2 of glycerol are esterified to the carboxyl groups of the two fatty acid chains; the C3 hydroxyl group  of the glycerol backbone is esterified to phosphoric acid
  2. phosphatidate
    Simplest phosphoglyceride that acts as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of other phosphoglycerides
  3. sphingomyelin
    Phospholipid found in membranes that is not derived from glycerol; the backbone is sphingosine, an amino alcohol that contains a long, unsaturated hydrocarbon chain; an amino group is linked to a fatty acid by an amide bond; the primary hydroxyl group of the sphingosine backbone
  4. cerebroside
    glycolipid that contains a single sugar residue
  5. Micelle
    Globular structures with the polar head groups from the outside surface of the micelle, surrounded by water, and the hydrocarbon tails sequestered inside, interacting with one another
  6. lipid bilayer
    Composed of two lipid sheets; aka: bimolecular sheet; hydrophobic tails of each individual sheet interact with one another, forming a hydrophobic interior that acts as a permeability barrier
  7. liposomes
    Lipid vesicles; aqueous compartments enclosed by a lipid bilayer; can be used to study membrane permeability
  8. sonicating
    agitating by high freq. sound waves
  9. Prostaglandin H2 synthase-1
    Catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2 in two steps: a cyclooxygenase reaction and a peroxidase reaction
  10. prostaglandin H2
    Promotes inflammation and modulates gastric acid secretion
  11. window
    The span of 20 residues chosen for the calculation of a transmembrane alpha helix
  12. hydropathy plot
    A plot that measures the free energy changes of each window of amino acids.
  13. lateral diffusion
    lateral motion in which lipids move
  14. FRAP
    A technique that measures diffusion; first, a cell-surface component is labeled with a fluorescent chromophore. Then, a segment is bleached out by a laser. The fluorescence of this region is then monitored as a function of time. The rate of recovery determines the lateral mobility.
  15. Transverse diffusion (flip-flop)
    Transition from one leaflet of the membrane to the other; it flip-flops once in several hours; free-energy barriers are large and prevent this
  16. Lipid rafts
    When cholesterol forms specific complexes with lipids that contain the sphingosine backbone and with GPI-anchored proteins, these complexes concentrate within small regions and become lipid rafts, moderating membrane fluidity and making it less fluid and less subject to change
  17. SNARE proteins
    Proteins that help draw appropriate membranes together to initiate the fusion process and determine the compartment to which a vesicle will fuse.