Anatomy and Physiology I - Midterm II; chapter 11

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jmali921
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Anatomy and Physiology I - Midterm II; chapter 11
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2014-11-12 19:07:28
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chapter 11
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  1. Describe the organization and function on the CNS
    • brain and spinal cord
    • integration and control center
  2. Describe the organization and function of the PNS
    • the portion of the nerve system outside the CNS
    • mainly nerves that extend from the brain and the spinal cord
    • spinal and cranial nerves
    • sensory and motor neurons
  3. Describe the organization and function of the afferent nervous system
    • subdivision of the PNS
    • Somatic sensory fibers: convey nerve impulses from skin, skeletal muscle, and joint to CNS
    • Visceral sensory fibers: convey nerve impulses from visceral organs to the CNS
  4. Describe the organization and function of the efferent division of the nervous system
    • subdivision of the PNS
    • transmits nerve impulses from the CNS to the effect organs 
    • two sub divisions: somatic nervous system and autonomic Nervous system
  5. Describe the organization and function of the somatic nervous system
    • subdivision of the efferent division (part of the peripheral nervous system)
    • somatic motor nerve fibers
    • conducts nerve impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
    • "voluntary nervous system"
  6. Describe the organization and function of the autonomic nervous system
    • subdivision of the efferent nervous system (division of the peripheral nervous system)
    • includes visceral motor nerve fibers 
    • regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland
    • "involuntary nervous system"
    • two functional divisions: sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
  7. name the types of neuroglia in the CNSname one function
    • astrocytes: support and brace neurons  
    • microglial cells: defensive cells in the CNS
    • ependymal cells: ciliated to circulate CSF
    • oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths around neurons
  8. name the types of neuroglia in the PNS
    • satellite cells: support and brace neurons 
    • Schwann cells: form myelin sheaths
  9. A cluster of cell bodies in the CNS is called _________, while in the PNS it is known as a _________.
    • nucleus 
    • ganglion
  10. explain the importance of the myelin sheath and how it is formed in the PNS and the CNS
    • the myelin sheath is a fatty blanket that insulates the axon to increase the speed of neuronal transmission. 
    • It also protects the axon
    • CNS: oligodendrites
    • PNS: schwann cells
  11. bundles of neuron processes (axons) in the CNS and in the PNS
    • CNS: tracts
    • PNS: Nerves
  12. name the structural classifications of neurons
    • classified by number of processes
    • multipolar neurons: 3 or more processes, most common, 1 axon many dendrites 
    • bipolar neurons: 2 processes, 1 axon 1 dendrite 
    • unipolar neurons: 1 short process
  13. Name the 3 functional classifications of neurons
    • Sensory (afferent) neurons: almost all unipolar 
    • Motor (efferent) neurons: almost all multipolar
    • Interneurons (association neurons): located between motor and sensory neurons
  14. Describe ion channels and their properties, differentiating between leakage and gated channels. Describe several types of gated channels
    • large membrane proteins that serve as selective membrane ion channels 
    • leakage channels: always open
    • gated channels: part of the protein changes shape to open or close the channel
  15. Name three types of gated ion channels
    • Chemically gated channels: open in response to binding of the appropriate neurotransmitter 
    • voltage-gated channels: open in response to changes in membrane potential 
    • mechanically gated channels: open/close to responses to physical deformation
  16. graded potentials
    • incoming signals that operate over short distances, short lived changes in membrane potential
    • includes depolarization and hyper polarization
    • not all-or-none effect
    • they decay over distance
    • varying strength of stimulus
    • skeletal muscle - lifts can vs bowling ball
    • cardiac muscle - jogging vs intense cardio
  17. describe changes in membrane potential in an AP. Relate this to changes in ion concentrations during the AP.
    • total changes is about 100mV
    • -70mV to +30 mV
    • resting: all gated Na+/K+ closed, only leakage channels are open to maintain membrane potential
    • Depolarization: stimulus opens voltage-gated Na+ channels (inside of membrane becomes more positive)
    • Threshold: -55mV is met, positive feedback opens up more and more Na+ channels
    • once the threshold is met than the membrane potential shoots to +30 mV
    • Repolarization: Na+ close, volatge-gated K+ opens and internal negativity is restored
    • Hyperpolarization: most K+ close, some remain open. Huge efflux of K+ ions cause cell to got o -75 mV
  18. 2 factors that influence the rate of AP in the neuron
    • Axon diameter (larger is faster)
    • degree of myelination
  19. two types of summation. Define them
    • Temporal summation: can occur with EPSP and IPSP. One or more preseynaptic neurons transmit impulses in a short period of TIMEto a postsynaptic neuron
    • Spatial Summation: a postsynaptic neuron is stimulated at differnt locations simultaneously by a large number of axon terminals
  20. Define the two types of postsynaptic potentials
    • both are graded potentials
    • Excitatory postsynaptic potential: slight depolarization that can bring neuron closer to the AP threshold
    • Inhibitory postsynaptic potential: causes hyperpolarization to bring the neuron farther away from the AP threshold
  21. 6 classes of neurotransmitters
    • acetylcholine
    • biogenic amines
    • peptides
    • purines
    • gases
    • lipids
    • amino acids
  22. describe the mechanism of action of neurotransmitters at channel-linked receptors
    ligand binds and directly affects the receptor in changing behaviour
  23. describe the mechanism of action of neurotransmitters at G protein-linked receptors
    • ligand binds to the receptor
    • receptor activates G protein
    • G protein activates enzyme
    • enzyme converts ATP to cAMP (2nd messenger)
    • 2nd Messager activates genes/ changes membrane permeability

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