Ch. 6 Psych

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  1. Learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience
  2. Associative learning
    learning that occurs when a connection (or association) is made between two events or stimuli

  3. Cognitive learning
    higher level learning that involves thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation
  4. Classical Conditioning 1
    A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli
  5. Classical Conditioning 2
    Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
  6. Operant Conditioning
    A form of learning based on the consequences of responding
  7. Ivan Pavlov
    • -Russian physiologist
    • -Discovered classical conditioning while studying dogs' saliva in 1927
    • -Association between reflexive (unlearned) behavior and learned behavior
  8. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response
  9. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    an innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
  10. Neutral Stimulus
    a stimulus that does not evoke a response
  11. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  12. Conditioned Response (CR)
    a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
  13. Acquisition
    the period of conditioning during which a resoonse is reinforced
  14. Extinction
    the weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement
  15. Spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
  16. Stimulus Generalization
    the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to, but not identical to a conditioned stimulus
  17. Stimulus Discrimination
    the learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli
  18. Edward Thorndike
    (1874- 1949s)

    • -Thorndike's Puzzle Box
    • -Trial and error learning
    • -Thordike's "law of effect"
  19. Thorndike's Law of Effect
    • -If a behavior is followed by a reward, it will increase the probablility that the behavior will occur again.
    • -If a behavior is not followed by a reward it will decrease the probablility that the behavior will occur again
    • -That is, behavior is determined by its (natural and probable) consequences
  20. Behaviorism
    A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behavior (what we do), and emphasizes that:

    Behavior is determined by the perceived natural and probable consequences of the act, or in other words, by the events or conditions that follow it.
  21. Burrhus Frederoc (B.F.) Skinner
    • -Harvard
    • -Operant Conditioning
    • -Skinner Box
  22. A-B-C Model
    • Antecedents: Persons, places, things, or events occuring before a behavior that encourage a person to perform the behavior.
    • Behavior: Any behavior.
    • Consequences: Events that follow behavior and change the probability that the behavior will occur again.
  23. Antecedents, Behaviors, & Consequences
    • Behaviorists believe that consequences are what determine behavior.
    • Antecedents are valuable only to the degree that they signal those consequences.
  24. Categorizing Consequences
    • Positive or Negative: P/N
    • Immediate or in the future: I/F
    • Certain or uncertain: C/U

    • -The most effective consequences are PIC and NIC.
    • -The least effective consequences are NFU and PFU.
  25. The most powerful consequences are:
    • Soon
    • Certain
    • Sizable
  26. Shaping
    Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern by rewarding approximations of desired behavior.
  27. Operant Reinforcement
    Events or consequences that increase or strengthen behavior 
  28. Positive Reinforcement
    • -Operant Conditioning
    • -Behavior increases because it is followed by a reward or other positive event (get something you want)
  29. Negative Reinforcement
    • Operant Conditioning
    • behavior increases because it is followed by an end to discomfort or the removal of an unpleasant event (avoid something you don't want.)
  30. Punishment
    Events or consequences that decrease behavior
  31. Positive Punishment
    • Operant Conditioning
    • The response or behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant event (get something you don't want).
  32. Response Cost
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Behavior decreases with the removal of a positive reinforcer after a response or behavior (don't get something you want).
  33. Limitation of Punishment
    • Punishment decreases the existing behavior, but it can't be used to establish new, desired behaviors.
    • Excessive punishment (especially physical) can increase aggression in children
  34. Schedules of Reinforcement
    "Timetables" that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
  35. Continuous Reinforcement
    pattern of reinforcement where every response rewarded
  36. Partial Reinforcement
    pattern of reinforcement in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced
  37. Fixed Ratio (FR)
    reinforces behavior after a set number of correct responses (behaviors)
  38. Fixed Interval (FI)
    reinforces behavior only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response (behavior)
  39. Variable Ratio (VR)
    a varied number of correct responses (behaviors) must be made to get a reinforcer
  40. Variable Interval (VI)
    behavior is reinforced after a varied amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response (behavior)
  41. Operant Stimulus Generalization
    giving the same response to similar stimuli
  42. Operant Stimulus Discrimination
    responding to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced
  43. Extinction
    occurs when a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced and there is a decreased tendency to perform the behavior
  44. Observational Learning
    Learning that occurs when a person watches and imitates the actions of another person and/or notes the consequences of those actions
  45. Process of Observational Learning
    • Attention
    • Retention
    • Motor Reproduction
    • Reinforcement
  46. Cognitive Learning
    Making use of information-rich higher mental processes-understanding, knowing, anticipating
  47. Cognitive Maps
    internal images or mental representations of an area that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to reach a goal
  48. Latent Learning
    Learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided
  49. Insight Learning
    problem solving in which there is sudden insight into or understanding of the problem's solution
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Ch. 6 Psych
2014-11-13 06:49:34

psych Conditioning/ Learning
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