Nutrition Exam 3

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Nutrition Exam 3
2014-11-13 00:43:24
nutrition exam

Nutrition exam 3
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  1. How did Goldberger discover that Pellagra was not contagious?
    He ate the excrement of those who had it.
  2. Which vitamin exhibits extreme photosensitivity, leading to milk carton design?
  3. Which vitamin is most often injected?
    Vitamin B12
  4. What vitamin was added to bread beginning in the 1990s?
  5. Why is Vitamin A necessary for night vision?
    It is required to make light sensitive compounds in the eye.
  6. How do antioxidants reduce cancer risk?
    Prevent damage to DNA by free radicals.
  7. Which vitamin deficiency did we learn more about due to poorly manufactured infant formula?
    Vitamin B6
  8. What vitamin is needed to metabolize amino acids?
    Vitamin B6
  9. What vitamin is used extensively in ethanol metabolism?
  10. What is Wernicke's Syndrome?
    Lack of thiamin, often from alcoholism.
  11. What vitamin is used in collagen formation?
    Vitamin C
  12. What are the best calcium supplements?
    Ca citrate, tartrate, lactate
  13. What is a "good" but not excellent calcium supplement?
    Ca carbonate
  14. What is Vitamin D required for?
    Absorbing calcium
  15. Which vitamin is injected at birth due to its difficulty in crossing the placental barrier?
    Vitamin K
  16. Which mineral is most associated with seafood?
  17. What are the calcium and phosphorus salts deposited in bone called?
  18. How can mineral content be determined?
    Measure the ash content of the food.
  19. What compound increases in concentration during folate deficiency, and can lead to increased risk of heart disease?
  20. Why is fluoride important in the diet?
    It is a component of fluorapatite.
  21. Which vitamin toxicity causes nerve damage, and was at one time used to treat PMS?
    Vitamin B6
  22. What is the yellow orange pigment found in carrots and pumpkins?
    Beta carotene
  23. When should vitamin supplements be taken?
    Women should take folate supplements if they are planning on becoming pregnant.
  24. What was concluded by the Danish smokers study?
    Beta carotene from food decreases cancer risk, while beta carotene supplements increase cancer risk.
  25. What is the best source of calcium for vegans?
    Fortified orange juice
  26. What vitamins are required to be added to enriched grains?
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
  27. Which acute toxicity leads to high CSF pressure?
    Vitamin A
  28. What dietary factor inhibits non-heme iron from being absorbed?
  29. What dietary factors help with the absorption of non-heme iron?
    Vitamin C and meat
  30. Where were vitamins identified and who identified them?
    Osborne and Mendel at Yale
  31. When were vitamins identified?
  32. What are the water soluble vitamins?
    Vitamin C and B vitamins
  33. What are the fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitamins A,D,E,K
  34. What are the three compounds of Vitamin A?
    • Retinol- liver, pills, fortified foods
    • Retinal- made from beta carotene
    • Retinoic acid- drugs
  35. What is the function of Vitamin A?
    • Light sensitive compounds in eyes
    • Vital to mucus secretion
  36. What is Vitamin A deficiency?
    • Night blindness
    • Xerophthalmia (dry cornea, blindness)
  37. What are the food sources of Vitamin A?
    • Liver
    • Carrots
    • Pumpkin
    • Fortified milk
  38. What is Vitamin A toxicity?
    • Hypervitaminosis A
    • Lethal
    • Acute-50x RDA (CSF pressure)
    • Chronic- 4x RDA (liver damage, cell membranes disintegrate)
    • Beta carotene regulated by body
  39. What are the compounds of Vitamin D?
    • Cholecalciferol
    • Ergocalciferol
  40. How is Vitamin D synthesized?
    • Made from cholesterol in liver
    • Reacts with sunlight at skin
    • Insufficient for RDA
  41. What is the function of Vitamin D?
    Calcium absorption
  42. What is Vitamin D deficiency?
    • Rickets (bowed legs/deformed bones)
    • Osteomalacia (demineralized bones)
    • Lower intake leads to cancer, heart disease, and alzheimers
  43. What are the food sources of Vitamin D?
    • Cod liver oil
    • Fortified milk
  44. What is Vitamin D toxicity?
    • Hypervitaminosis D
    • Lethal
    • Mineralizes soft tissue
  45. What is the Vitamin E compound?
  46. What is the function of Vitamin E?
  47. What is Vitamin E deficiency?
    • Hemolytic anemia
    • At risk: premature infants
  48. What are food sources of Vitamin E?
    Vegetable oil
  49. What is Vitamin E toxicity?
    • Hypervitaminosis E
    • Interferes with Vitamin K
    • Risk of hemorrhage
  50. What the Vitamin K compounds?
    • Menaquinone
    • Phylloquinone
  51. What is the function of Vitamin K?
    • Blood clotting
    • Protein net in bones
  52. What are the sources of Vitamin K?
    • Bacteria in intestine
    • Green leafy vegetables
  53. What is the Vitamin K antagonist?
  54. What is Vitamin K toxicity?
  55. What is the Vitamin C compound?
    Ascorbic acid
  56. What is Vitamin C's function?
    • Antioxidant
    • Collagen formation
  57. What is Vitamin C deficiency?
    • Scurvy
    • Purplish spots
    • Bleeding gums
    • Loss of teeth
  58. What are food sources of Vitamin C?
    • Citrus fruits
    • Cabbage
  59. What is the rules for preserving Vitamin C during preparation?
    Less exposure to water, heat, and air=better nutrients
  60. What is Vitamin C toxicity?
    • 10x RDA
    • Kidney stones
    • Dependency
    • Gestational scurvy
  61. What is the function of Thiamin?
    Metabolism of glucose and fatty acids.
  62. What is thiamin deficiency?
    • Beri beri
    • Nerve degeneration
    • Leads to paralysis
    • Wernicke's syndrome
  63. What are sources of thiamin?
    Enriched grains
  64. What is the function of riboflavin?
    Metabolism of glucose and fatty acids.
  65. What is riboflavin deficiency?
    • Dermatitis
    • Glossitis
  66. What are the food sources of riboflavin?
    • Milk
    • Enriched grains
  67. What is riboflavin toxicity?
    Yellow urine
  68. What is the function of Niacin?
    Metabolism of glucose and fatty acids.
  69. What is niacin deficiency?
    • Pellagra
    • Diarrhea, dementia, bisymmetrical dermatitis
  70. What are the food sources of niacin?
    • Meat
    • Enriched grains
  71. What is pernicious anemia?
    Inability to absorb Vitamin B12.
  72. What is megaloblastic anemia?
    • Inhibition of DNA synthesis
    • Caused by folate or Vitamin B12 deficiency
  73. What is the function of Vitamin B6?
    • Metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and lipids.
    • Hemoglobin production.
  74. What is Vitamin B6 deficiency?
    • Dermatitis
    • Pink eye
    • Mouth ulcer
  75. What are food sources of Vitamin B6?
    • Meats
    • Whole Grains
    • Vegetables
  76. What is Vitmain B6 toxicity?
    Prolonged megadoses can lead to nerve damage.
  77. What is the function of biotin?
    • Cell growth
    • Metabolism of glucose and amino acids
    • Production of fatty acids
  78. What is biotin deficiency?
    • Rare
    • Hair loss
    • Pink eye
    • Dermatitis
  79. What are biotin sources?
    • Produced in gut by bacteria
    • Peanuts
  80. What is biotin toxicity?
  81. What is the function of pantothenic acid?
    • Protein synthesis
    • Metabolism of CHO, protein, and lipids
    • Production of coenzyme A
  82. What is pantothenic acid deficiency?
    • Rare
    • Fatigue
  83. What are sources of pantothenic acid?
    • Meat
    • Whole grains
  84. What is folic acid function?
    • DNA synthesis
    • Cell division
    • RBC production
  85. What is folic acid deficiency?
    • Diarrhea
    • Confusion
    • Fatigue
  86. What are the sources of folic acid?
    • Meat
    • Fortified grains
    • Leafy greens
  87. What is folic acid toxicity?
    May mask B12 deficiency
  88. What is the function of Vitamin B12?
    • Brain and CNS function
    • DNA synthesis
    • RBC production
  89. What is Vitamin B12 deficiency?
    • Fatigue
    • Brain and CNS damage
  90. What are Vitamin B12 sources?
    • Meat
    • Eggs
    • Milk
    • Fortified grains
  91. What is the function of calcium?
    • Bone
    • Teeth
    • Cell metabolism
    • Muscle contraction
  92. What is calcium deficiency?
    • Osteomalacia-demineralized bone
    • Osteoporosis-chronic loss of bone mass
  93. What are food sources of calcium?
    • Milk
    • Yogurt
    • Cheese
    • Broccoli
    • Fortified OJ
  94. Where is iron found?
    75% in blood
  95. What is the function of iron?
    • Hemoglobin production
    • Myoglobin production (binds O2)
  96. What is iron deficiency?
    • Anemia
    • Microcytic-small/pale
  97. Who is at risk of iron deficiency?
    • Children with milk as staple
    • Women
    • Vegetarians
    • Athletes
  98. What are food sources of iron?
    • Heme: meat (liver, red meat)
    • Non-heme: plants/supplements (raisins/prunes)
  99. What is the function of iodine?
    Part of thyroid hormone molecule
  100. What is iodine deficiency?
    Goiter- enlarged thyroid
  101. What are sources of iodine?
    • Seafood
    • Iodized salt
  102. What is the function of fluoride?
    Stronger teeth and bones
  103. What is fluoride deficiency?
    Tooth decay
  104. What is the source of fluoride?
    Fluoridated water
  105. What is fluoride toxicity?
    Mottled teeth