Anatomy and Phyiology I: Midterm II chapter 12

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Anatomy and Phyiology I: Midterm II chapter 12
2014-11-12 22:51:13
Anatomy brain

chapter 12 the brain
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  1. Describe the organization of the adult brain, naming the major regions. Name and locate the ventricles in the brain
    • Cerebrum: right and left cerebral hemispheres
    • Diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus
    • brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
    • Cerebellum
    • A: frontal lobe
    • B: Temporal Lober
    • C: parietal Lobe
    • d: occipital lobe
    • Yellow (top): primary motor cortex
    • light blue: primary somatosensory cortex
    • pink: Wernickes area
    • Red: Prefrontal cortex
    • Crimson: Broca's area
  2. differentiate between:
    association fibers
    projection fibers
    • Association fibers: connect differnt parts of the same hemisphere
    • Commissures: connect corresponding gray areas of the two cerebral hemispheres
    • Projection Fibers: travel vertically; connect cerebral hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord centers
  3. locate, describe, state the major function:
    basal nuclei
    • a group of subcortical nuclei located deep within the cerebral white matter
    • functions: cognition and emotion, inhibit unnecessary movements, filter out incorrect responses, influence muscle movements
  4. locate, describe, state the major function:
    • 80% of diencephalon
    • function: relay station for incoming sensory information transmitted to the cerebrum, relays impulses from the hypothalamus fir regulation of emotion and visceral function
  5. locate, describe, state the major function:
    • function: homeostasis
    • 1) controls ANS
    • 2) initiates physical responses to emotions
    • 3) regulates body temperature
    • 4) regulates food intake
    • 5) regulates water balance and thirst
    • 6) regulates sleep-wake cycles
    • 7) controls endocrine system functions
  6. locate, describe, state the major function:
    • contains nuclei imbedded in white matter
    • controls automatic behaviours necessary for survival
    • contain nuclei which originate 10/12 pairs of cranial nerves
  7. locate, describe, state the major function:
    • cognitive function: role in thinking, language and emotion
    • location: dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata
    • processes motor activity¬†
    • calculates skeletal muscle contractions, maintenance of balance and posture
  8. locate, describe, state the major function:
    limbic system
    • includes parts of the diencephalon and structures that encircle the brain stem¬†
    • is the emotional centre of the brain
    • plays a role in memory
  9. locate, describe, state the major function:
    reticular formation
    • located: central core of the brain stem
    • has connections with other CNS regions
    • plays a key role in arousal of the brain
  10. describe the meninges and how each protect the CNS
    • 3 meninges; dura mater, Arachnoid mater, pia mater
    • dura mater consists of 2 layers of fibrous connective tissue
  11. describe cerebrospinal fluid and how it protects the CNS
    • provides buoyancy to float the brain and spinal cord
    • shock-absorbing fluid
    • nourishes the CNS and carries chemical signals
  12. describe how the blood brain barrier protects the CNS
    • helps maintain a stable environment for the brain
    • formed by tight junctions of neighbouring endothelial cells of brain capillaries
    • selective barrier (allows nutrients in/prevents most drugs from entering neurons)
  13. describe the pathway of the formation of CSP to its absorption
    • 1) choroid plexus of each ventricle produces CSF
    • 2) CSF flows though the ventricles and into the subarachnoid space
    • 3) CSF flows through the subarachnoid space
    • 4) CSF is absorbed into the dural venous sinuses
  14. describe the function of the spinal cord
    • provides 2-ways communication to and from the brain
    • it is a major reflex center
  15. describe the location of the spinal cord
    starts at the foramen magnum and extends downward to the L2 vertebra
  16. ascending pathways consist of a series of three neurons. Describe the first-order neuron
    conducts impulses from receptors into the spinal cord
  17. ascending pathways consist of a series of three neurons. Describe the second-order neuron
    axons extend into the thalamus or the cerebellum
  18. ascending pathways consist of a series of three neurons. Describe the third-order neuron
    • cell body is located in the thalamus
    • axon extends to the somatosensory cortex
  19. describe a typical two-neuron motor pathway
    • an example or a direct pathway are the pyramidal tracts
    • these tracts have 2 neurons
    • upper motor neurons: cell bodies in the primary motor cortex
    • lower motor cortex: ventral horn motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles