Chapter 13 Final Review: ID

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  1. pumps
    use free energy to drive the uphill transport of ions or molecules; ac;tive transport
  2. carriers
    Mediate the transport of ions and small molecules across the membrane without consumption of ATP
  3. Channels
    Provide a membrane pore through which ions can flow very rapidly in a thermodynamically downhill direction; passive transport (facilitated diffusion)
  4. P-type ATPases
    Enzymes that form a key phosphorylated intermediate, where the phosphoryl group from ATP is linked to the side chain of a specific conserved aspartate residue in the ATPase to form phosphorylaspartate
  5. ABC transporters
    Members of the P-loop NTPase superfamily; is a dimer; amino terminal half of each protein contains the membrane-spanning domain, and the carboxyl-terminal half contains the ATP-bnding casette
  6. Primaryy active transport
    Transport of ions against their gradient
  7. Secondary active transport
    Carriers utilize the gradient to drive the transport of another against its gradient, called this
  8. Ion channels
    Allow ions to flow rapidly across membranes and down their gradients; specific in what gets through and what is hindered; can be voltage or gated
  9. Gap junctions
    Cell to cell channels that allow the flow of metabolites or ions between cells
  10. Lipophilic molecules
    Molecues that dissolve in the lipid bilayer
  11. Membrane potential/ electrochemical potential
    Voltage across a membrane and the storage of energy across it
  12. Na+-K+ ATPase
    Generates the ionic gradients of high concentrations of potassium and low concentrations of sodium inside the cell; hydrolysis of ATP only takes palce when Na+ and K+ are present; it requires Mg2+
  13. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)
    Transports Ca2+ out of the cytoplasm and into the SR of muscle cells
  14. Gastric H+-K+ ATPase
    Enzyme responsible for pumping sufficient protons into the stomach to lower the pH
  15. Eversion
    The interconversion of the two conformations of a membrane protein
  16. Digitalis
    A mixture of cardiotonic steroids derived from the dried leaf of the foxglove plant
  17. Antiporters
    Couple the downhill flow of one species to the uphill flow of another in the opposite direction across the membrane
  18. Symporters
    Use the flow of one species to drive the flow of a different species int eh same direction across the membrane
  19. Lactose permease
    A symporter that uses the H+ gradient across the E. coli membrane generated by theoxidation of fuel moleules to drive the uptke of lactose and other sugars against a concentration gradient ; has two halves, each of which comprises six membrane-spanning alpha helices, some of which are irregular; two halves are separated and joined by a single stretch of polypeptideIn this structure, the sugar lies in a pocket in the center of the protein and is accessible from a path that leads from the interior of the cell
  20. Nerve impulse
    Electrical signal produced by the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of a neuron
  21. Patch clamp technique
    Enables the measurement of ion conductance through a small patch of cell membrane; a clean glass pipette with a tip diameter is pressed against an intact cell to form a seal; slight suction leads to the formation of a very tight seal so that the resistance between the inside fo the pipette and the bathing solution is many gigaohms. The gigaseal ensures that an electric current flowing through the pipette is identical with the current flowing through the membrane covered by the pipette. The gigaseal meakes possible measurements while a known voltage is applied across the membrane; the flow of ions can aloso be monitored
  22. Ball and chain model
    The first 20 residues of the K+ channel form a cytoplasmic unit that is attached to a flexible segment of the polypeptide (the chain). When the channel is closed, the ball rotates freely in the aqueous solution. When the channel opens, the ball quickly finds a complementary site in the open pore and occludes it. Shortening the chain speeds inactivation
  23. Synaptic cleft
    The presynaptic membrane of a synapse is separated from the postsynaptic membrane by this gap
  24. Equilibrium potential
    When the driving force due to the concentration gradient is balanced by the electrostatic force resisting the motion of an additional charge
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Chapter 13 Final Review: ID
2014-11-13 04:23:30
Test Three
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