Ch. 7 Psych

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Ch. 7 Psych
2014-11-13 03:44:35

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  1. Memory
    The mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information
  2. Domains of Memory
    • Encoding: converting information into a form that can be retained in memory
    • Storage: holding information in memory for later use
    • Retrieval: recovering information from storage
  3. Selective Attention
    focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
  4. Divided Attention
    attending to several things simultaneously
  5. Levels of Processing
    • Shallow: sensory or physical features are analyzed
    • Intermediate: occurs when a stimulus is recognized and labeled
    • Deep: occurs when you process information semantically (you give it meaning)
  6. Elaboration
    the extensiveness of processing and any given level of memory
  7. Imagery
    memory for images is better than for words because images are stored as both an image code and a verbal code
  8. Stages of Memory Storage
    • -Sensory Memory: 1st stage of memory, holds incoming information for a few seconds or less
    • -Short-Term Memory:used to hold small amounts of information for a brief time period
    • -Long-Term Memory:used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information
  9. Sensory Memory
    • Iconic memory: from visual sensory memory
    • Echoic memory: from auditory sensory memory
  10. Short-Term Memory
    • Memory Span: the number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentation of them (7+ or -2)
    • Chunking
    • Rehearsal: 
    •    -Maintenance Rehearsal
    •    -Elaborative encoding
  11. Working Memory
    briefly holds information needed when we are thinking or solving problems
  12. Long-Term Memory
    the memory system used for relatively permanent type storage of meaningful information
  13. Declarative (Explicit) Memory
    conscious recollections of information such as specific factual information

    • -Episodic Memory: personal experiences linked to specific times and places
    • -Semantic Memory: memories of impersonal knowledge about the world

    (Long-Term Memory)
  14. Non-declarative (Implicit) Memory
    memories that we do not necessarily know exist. A memory that is retrieved unconsciously

    • -Procedural Memory: memory of conditioned responses and learned skills
    •        -Skills
    •        -Classical Conditioning

    (Long-Term Memory)
  15. Memory Retrieval
    Taking memories out of storage
  16. Serial Position
    the tendency to recall items at the beginning and the end of a list
  17. Recognition
    the ability to correctly identify previously learned information
  18. Encoding Failture
    a failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory

  19. Interference
    the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse

    • -Proactive interference
    • -Retroactive interference
  20. Decay
    the disintegration of neurochemical memory traces that form during learning
  21. Disuse
    memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved
  22. Cue-Dependent Forgetting
    • Memory Cue: a stimulus associated with a particular memory
    • Encoding Specificity Principle: information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a memory cue
  23. Context Dependent Memory
    we remember better when we attempt to recall information in the same context in which we learned it
  24. State Dependent Learning
    we remember information better when our psychological state or mood is similar at encoding and retrieval
  25. Repression
    unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness
  26. Suppression
    a conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it from awareness