Ch. 8 Psych

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Ch. 8 Psych
2014-11-13 03:44:16

Intelligence/ Cognition
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  1. Intelligence
    • The capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
    • The ability to understand and adapt to the environment, that results from a combination of both inherited characteristics and educational experiences
  2. General Mental Abilities
    • Reasoning
    • Problem Solving
    • Knowledge
    • Memory
    • Successful adaptation to one's surrounding
  3. Multiple-Factor Theory of Intelligence
    7 primary mental abilities including:

    • -verbal comprehension
    • -number ability
    • -word fluency
    • -spatial visualization
    • -associative memory
    • -reasoning
    • -perceptual speed
  4. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
    analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, & practical intelligence
  5. Gardner's Theory of 8 Intelligences
    • verbal skills
    • mathematical skills
    • spatial skills
    • bodily-kinesthetic skills
    • musical skills
    • interpersonal skills
    • intrapersonal skills
    • naturalist skills
  6. Heretability
    the fraction of the variance in IQ in a populations that is attributed to genetics
  7. Intelligence Quotient
    IQ= (MA÷CA) X 100

    • MA= mental age
    • CA= chronological age
    • IQ of 100 is average
  8. Normal Distribution
    A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve characterized by a large number of scores in a middle area, tapering to very few extremely high or low scores
  9. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
    • Fluid Reasoning
    • Knowledge
    • Quantitative reasoning
    • Visual-spatial processing
    • Working memory
  10. Wechsler's Scales
    6 verbal & 5 nonverbal measures
  11. Validity
    the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
  12. Reliability
    the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
  13. Standardization
    involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms for the test
  14. Culture-Fair Testing
    Intelligence tests designed to minimize the importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others
  15. Use & Misuse of Intelligence Tests
    • Often thought of as a fixed, unchanging indicator of an individual's intelligence
    • Lead to stereotypes and expectations about an individual
  16. Cognition
    the process of thinking or mentally processing information
  17. Thinking
    manipulating information
  18. Mental Images
    a mental representation that has picture-like qualities; an icon
  19. Concepts
    Mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics
  20. Types of Concepts
    • Conjunctive
    • Relational
    • Disjunctive
  21. Classical Model of Concepts
    all instances of a concept share defining properties
  22. Prototype Model of Concepts
    an ideal model used as a prime example of a particular concept
  23. Semantics
    the study of meaning in words and language

  24. Phonemes
    the basic speech sounds
  25. Morphemes
    speech sounds collected into meaningful units

    • -In English: mbwa means nothing
    • -In Swahili: mbwa means dog
  26. Grammar
    the rules for making sounds into words and words into sentences

    -Syntax: the rules for word order
  27. Problem Solving
    An attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available
  28. Types of Problem Solving
    • Mechanical Solutions
    • Algorithms
    • Heuristics
    • Expertise
    • Insight
  29. Fixation
    the tendency to repeat wrong solutions or faulty responses, especially as a result of becoming blind to alternatives
  30. Function Fixedness
    a rigidity in problem solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects