Ch. 9 Psych

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Ch. 9 Psych
2014-11-13 04:11:41

Motivation & Emotion
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  1. Motivation
    internal processes that initiate, sustain, direct & terminate activities
  2. A Model of Motivation
    • Activities begin with a need (internal deficiency), which causes a drive (an energized motivational state)
    • Drives activate responses (an action) to attain a goal (the "target" of motivated behavior)
  3. Types of Motivation
    • -Biological Motives: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs that must be met to survive
    • -Stimulus Motives: Needs for stimulation and information; appear to be innate, but not necessary for survival.
    • -Learned Motives: Based on learned needs, drives, & goals
  4. Biological Motives
    • Drive Reduction Theory- a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it
    • Homeostasis- the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium

    • Bodily Functions that produce Biological Motives:
    • -Circadian Rhythms 
    • -Hunger
    • -Thirst
    • -Pain
    • -Sex
  5. Stimulus Motives
    Arousal Theory- people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal

    -Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal, rather than either high or low arousal
  6. Learned Motives
    Social Motives- learned motives acquired as part of growing up in a particular society or culture

    -Need for achievement: the desire to excel or to meet some internalized standard of excellence
  7. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological needs: air, food, water, sleep, sex, etc.
    • Safety & Security
    • Love & Belonging
    • Esteem & Self-Esteem
    • Self-Actualization
  8. Intrinsic Motivation
    motivation that comes from within, rather than from external rewards
  9. Extrinsic Motivation
    motivation that is based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors