Ch. 9 Psych
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internal processes that initiate, sustain, direct & terminate activities
A Model of Motivation
- Activities begin with a need (internal deficiency), which causes a drive (an energized motivational state)
- Drives activate responses (an action) to attain a goal (the "target" of motivated behavior)
Types of Motivation
- -Biological Motives: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs that must be met to survive
- -Stimulus Motives: Needs for stimulation and information; appear to be innate, but not necessary for survival.
- -Learned Motives: Based on learned needs, drives, & goals
- Drive Reduction Theory- a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it
- Homeostasis- the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium
- Bodily Functions that produce Biological Motives:
- -Circadian Rhythms
Arousal Theory- people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal
-Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal, rather than either high or low arousal
Social Motives- learned motives acquired as part of growing up in a particular society or culture
-Need for achievement: the desire to excel or to meet some internalized standard of excellence
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Physiological needs: air, food, water, sleep, sex, etc.
- Safety & Security
- Love & Belonging
- Esteem & Self-Esteem
motivation that comes from within, rather than from external rewards
motivation that is based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors
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