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Internal carotid source
The 2 branches of the common carotid a.; arise at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage at C3
Internal carotid artery
- • There are no branches of the internal carotid a. in the neck
- • Contains carotid sinus
- • In carotid sheath along with the internal jugular v. and the vagus n., anterior to TP
- • A baroreceptor located as a dilation at the beginning of the internal carotid a.
- • Usually receives its sensory innervation from the carotid branch of the glossopharyngeal n.
External carotid artery
- • Gives rise to a majority of the branches to the neck
- • Located external to the carotid sheath and travels anteriorly and superiorly in the neck posterior to the mandible and deep to the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid mm. to enter the parotid gland
Superior thyroid artery
- • Passes inferiorly to the inferior constrictor m. while going to thyroid gland
- • Superior laryngeal a. branches off and passes through the thyrohyoid membrane to supply the larynx
- • Goes towards greater horn of hyoid
- • Makes a loop while traveling towards middle constrictor m.
- • Hypoglossal goes through loop
- • Goes deep to post. Digastric
- • Gives rise to hyoid branch that travels on surface of hyoid supplying muscles in area
- • Passes deep and anteriorly between the hypoglossi and genioglossus mm. to supply the tongue
- • Passes deep to the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid mm.
- • Goes along the submandibular gland creating the submental a., which helps supply the gland
- • Passes superiorly over the body of the mandible at the masseter m. to supply the face
Ascending pharyngeal artery
- • The smallest branch of the external carotid
- • Ascends superiorly between pharynx the internal carotid a.
- • Has a series of branches:
- • Inferior to post. Digastric
- • Hypoglossal wraps around
- • Toward mastoid process
- • Pierces fascia between SCM and trap
- • Move superficial and up
- • Anastomoses with posterior auricle, superficial temporal
Two "systems" to provide oxygenated blood to the brain; together they join to form the Circle of Willis
- Vertebral basilar
- Internal carotid
The importance of compartmentalizing fascia
- • Helps with determining the spread of infection
- • --- limits the spread of infection
- • decreases friction and allow for movement
- • prevents surgical mishaps
- • Accessory muscle for respiration
- • Elevates ribs increasing thoracic cavity
- • Seen in COPD
Problem with hypertrophied scalenes
Fascia is tight and hypertrophy leads to compression of trunks of brachial plexus