4th test

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4th test
2014-11-14 09:53:51

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  1. Domestication
    • Domesticates tend to be smaller than their wild counterparts - dental arcades tend to be smaller & crowded
    • sex ratio favors females over males for breeding purposes
  2. things humans do to animals need to be considered such as
    • poirets facet - area on animals that humans put animals through
    • neck-harness
    • thoracic vertebrae- riding
    • schmorl's nodes-horse developed from carrying heavy things on back humans can develop this too
  3. predation (attacking/preying) on humans
    • not only humans affect animals, animals afect humans too
    • past predation more prolific
    • animals often larger;ability to predate humans enhanced
    • often bioarchs forget about these things
  4. (predation of humans) swartkranz
    • cave site in south africa
    • found by robert broom
    • used by predators
    • full of hominid and faunal remains that date 3.5-4 million years ago
    • occipital and frontal remains found on Australopithecus specimen were indicative of blunt force or trauma that fit prehistoric leopards
    • theoretically, leopards grab by head and pull up into tree bc its easier to hold with teeth
  5. Plasticine cave bears were mostly ______ and went extinct _____ yrs ago
    • vegetarian
    • 27,000
  6. Experimental Archaeology
    Why do it?
    What are archaeological facts?

    Archaeologists are trying to reconstruct
    past human behavior, but the archaeological record is only the result of those
    behaviors.  So how does one go from
    archaeological data to reconstructing lifeways?
    • experimental arch is the largely activities that relate to lasting ideas
    • arch facts can be tool marks or wear marks on human tools
    • what made those marks are not fact thats why it needs to be tested
  7. Investigation aimed at linking the static
    data from the archaeological record with the dynamic process that formed it.
    middle range theory
  8. experimental archaeologists keep these ideas:
    what are the 3 range  theories:
    Low theory - observable facts in archeological record. ex. artifacts that clearly state that folsom points look like these

    middle range - bridges the gap; connecting facts to other observable behavior

    high theory - refers to ethnology; argues that by connecting low & midle theory we can understand law of human behavior
  9. Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002)
    • experimental archaeologist
    • norwegian adventurer
    • demonstarted that it was possible to sail from peru to polynesia in a kontiki
    • wanted to prove that polynesians had ancestral ties to peruvians
    • built Ra I and Ra II (I sank - II made it)
    • outset of career pushed into psuedoscience
  10. ethnoarchaeology
    • study people in present to understand people in past
    • lewis binford conducted ethnoarchaeological work
  11. William Rathje
    • conducted archaeological research in Tucson Arizona
    • Garbage project
    • established patterns in consumption of goods
    • showed that we are what we eat
    • scarcity in certain food items are products can indicate economical issues or socioeconomic status
    • in regards to olsen chubbuck - overkill site indicates scarce resources therefore new ways of obtaining food was constructed
  12. Natalia Polosmak
    • 1993 in south syberia
    • discovered frozen mummy - Ice maiden
    • well preserved female tomb due to permafrost (ground material below 0degrees celcius for years)
    • has remarkable tattoos
    • scan found mummy had breast cancer bc of high THC levels
  13. don crabtree
    • spent his time trying to recreate lithic technology by flintknapping
    • made arrowheads, spearpoints, and eccentric lithic forms
    • he had declining health issues and bc of crutch leaning he was very likely pressure flaking not striking
    • folsom points - long flutes hard to replicate
    • Friar Juan D.T.Q mentions lithic industry
  14. neanderthal
    • 1848 - 1st neanderthal skull found
    • scientists believe Neanderthals were distinctive and their own species
    • best known of all prehistoric population
    • not half witted or deformed
    • highly adaptable & stable all signs point to it
    • hollywood and inaccuarate morphology
    • lot of neanderthal sites - we know a lot about them
  15. Evolution of neanderthals
    • Neanderthals and AMH evolved separately from homo erectus
    • homo erectus -> homo antecessor -> the split into modern humans and Neanderthals
  16. pleistocene
    • geological era
    • began 1.8 million years ago - 10,000 yrs ago
    • buildup of continental ice sheets.
  17. homo sapians (modern humans)
    all living humans are members of this species
  18. frisson effect
    • coined by george frison
    • american archaeologist
    • clovis points were before folsom points
    • process through which the shape of stone tools changes during their life use
    • penetrated elephant hide to see their effectiveness
    • dulled quickly
  19. body farm
    • william bass
    • founded in knoxville tennesse
    • buried different cadavers in different ways to record what happens
    • assists forensic personnel
    • corporal decay = body decompostion (FS)
  20. Basics of Social Organization
    • humans dominated by foraging 95% of time
    • only food producers last 10,000 years
    • recognize 5 major subsistence patterns
    • Foraging
    • Horticulture
    • Pastoralism
    • Agriculture
    • Industrial Agriculture
  21. what is subsistance patterns
    • how society acquires food by
    • FHPAI
  22. social organization & susistence pattern
    • band - foraging
    • tribe - horticulture & pastorialism
    • cheifdom - non mechanized agriculture
    • state - industrialized/intensive agriculture
  23. So what do human subsistence strategies look like?
    What kind of material traces would you
    look for if you were investigating a foraging society?
    • tool use - indicate food processing
    • physical remains of food
    • faunal remains
    • carbonized seeds
  24. hominid evolution (4 A's 5 H)
    • Ardipithicus
    • Australopithicus
    • A. Afarensis
    • A. africanus
    • H habilis
    • H ergaster
    • H. erectus
    • H. Neanderthalis
    • Homo sapians

  25. Dentition is indicative of what an organism eats and its relationship to other organisms. how can you tell?
    • diastema - gap between canine and incisor
    • lg molars - a lot of chewing plants w/ silica
    • different carries
    • wear on different teeth and occlusion
  26. Alan Walker
    • analyzed bone fragments of KNM-ER 1808  found at KoobiFora in 1974
    • showed vitamin A poisoning from eating carnivorous liver which doesnt get broken down in carnivores
  27. Australopithecine (gorilla) dentition and facial
    • designed for heavy chewing
    • m. masseter. & m. temporalis is much larger in gorillas extends further
    • sharper teeth
    • large simple stomachs
    • eats lots of plants
  28. australopithicus compared to homo erectus
    • large chest
    • small achilles tendon
    • high shoulders
    • long forearm
    • partial foot arch
    • long toes
    • not for running long distances
  29. neanderthal body compared to humans
    • more robust
    • barrel like chest
    • shorter stature
    • long thin pelvis
    • long finger and toe bones
    • prognathic face - pushed out
    • braincase - long elongated - large cranial capacity
    • low sloped forehead
    • large brow ridges
    • large wide projecting nose
    • no chin
    • large front teeth
    • fused teeth roots
  30. neanderthals living situation
    lived in open-air sites and rocky shelters near fresh water

    • well adapted to their environment
    • First species capable of living in
    • cold regions with harsh climate (soviet union)
  31. mousterian tools
    • neanderthal making
    • flint tools
    • small and intricate
    • stone flaking & chipping
    • shows complicated cognitive thinking (if,then)
    • anticipation & forward thinking
    • used teeth as tools too
    • tools not equiped for long distance hunting
  32. Erik Trinkaus
    • observed neanderthal skull injuries & fractures
    • compared to spanish bull fighters and american rodeo injuries
    • indicates close hunting proximity
    • moved to new mexico discovered this
  33. lumpers vs. splitters
    • lumper - generalized division of species
    • splitter - complex division (more to do with funding)
  34. when did AMH evolve
    150,000 yrs ao
  35. aphasia
    loss of language- cant produce just comprehend
  36. evidence of language is 3 things that sets us apart from other homos
    • arbitrary - symbolic in meaning
    • productive - we can invent things
    • displacing - communicate about things that arent present
    • neanderthal did not have evolved language - tools dont change
    • even though kebara fossil showed evidence of voice box
  37. very 1st arch burials come from
  38. What did Neanderthals eat?
    • isotopic evidence shows meat heavy
    • little plants
    • ice age environment so not much vegetation
  39. Neanderthal behavior in shanidar
    • shanidar in Iraq
    • deep cave excavated
    • 4 individuals
    • interested in indivdual 1 & 4
    • individual 1 has inuries to left side of face possible blindness and arm amputation - someone had to take care of him
    • individual 4 - intentioonally buried in flex position; body surrounded by different flower species shows symolic behavior
    • Neanderthal first to bury their dead
  40. neanderthals cohabit with AMH for ____ yrs and go extinct ____ yrs ago
    • 20,000
    • 30,000
  41. Svante Pääbo
    • mapped neanderthal genome
    • mid 90's sowed impossible for neanderthals to interbreed with humans
    • in 2010 shows we carry minute neanderthal gemone
  42. human migration (AMH)
    • radiate across the world
    • evolved into contemporary morphology about 150-130,000 years ago
    • evolved in and out of Africa
    • homo erectus 1st to leave africa
  43. Prior to 25,000 years ago humans did not
    venture north of 50 degrees Latitude why?
    • not enough sunlight
    • vitamin D deficiency
    • need to consistently exploit lichen (reindeer/marine mammals)
  44. The “New Form”
    • explosion of human behavior
    • tool industry changes
    • symbolic expression in art, burial
  45. Chauvet cave
    cave in france that displays artistic expresssion
  46. gargas cave
    hand print shape making art
  47. La Vache
    small portable art
  48. Dolni Vestonice
    • czech republic
    • evidence of ceramics
  49. Extinction of the Megafauna
    • Last Glacial Maximum 22,000-18,000BP
    • Younger-Dryas– cold snap large animals go extinct
    • thoery - chill kill pathogen wiped them out
    • kill theory - humans kiled them all
  50. why did humans persue smaller game
    • bc of the megafauna extinction and younger dryas.
    • they needed food so went after small game
    • exploited plants and seeds
  51. why farm in the first place?
    • domestication
    • not as dangerous
    • trade
    • food distribution
    • agriculture revolution
  52. Gordon Childe
    • coined Neolithic Revolution:
    • transition from foraging to agriculture

    unilineal evolution - progress from simple to complex

    • Increased control over food supply
    • population growth
    • can invest in other things
  53. human
    creation of a new plant or animal
  54. study of botanical remains for the purpose of identifying human manipulation of
  55. domestication of animals
    Domesticates tend to be smaller than their wild counterparts

    • The sex ratio of animals is also
    • telling as herders and breeders tend to favor slaughtering males over females
    • since females are more valuable.  I.e.
    • desired males are kept for breeding while those with unfavorable traits are
    • culled.
  56. domestication of plants
    • transformtion of environement
    • larger seeds desired that dont seperate
    • corn derived from teosinte and was manipulated into our modern corn
  57. coxcatlan
    • scotty macneish - amer arch
    • wanted to identify where maize was domesticated
    • stumbled onto site coxcatlan
    • was able to date teosinte
  58. Consequences
    of Domestication
    • initial evidence showed farmers suffereed from malnutrition
    • evidence in harris lines in teeth and bones
    • less varied food
    • labor intensive
    • occasional failed crop
    • anemia - malnutrition and lack of varied diet
    • softer diet - malocclusion
    • increase in dental caries bc of sugars
  59. Przewalski Horse
    Botai (3500-3000)  Marsha Levine
    • looked for trauma patterns that indicate horseback riding
    • found oldest site botai
    • native to mongolia
    • last subspecies of wildhorse