Pathology test 3

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  1. Blood PH: Blood
    HC03: Kidneys
    • PH: 7.35-7.45 normal
    • C02: 35-45 normal
    • hc03: 22-26 normal
  2. PH
    • If it is lower than 35 it is acidic
    • If it is higher than 45 it is alkalosis
  3. C02: is an acid ( lungs)
    • lower than 35, alkalosis
    • more than 45, acidic
  4. Hc03: base( kidneys)
    • less than 22; acidic
    • more than 26; alkalosis
  5. Systolic:
    • Ventricular contraction, BBB brain,body,lungs
    • Lungs the R ventricle does this, Brain and body the left ventricle does that, AV valves closed deliver the blood
  6. Dystolic:
    Atrium contraction the purpose is to fill the ventricles.
  7. Heart wall:Pericardium
    Parietal and visceral-holds fluid
  8. Myocardium:
    L-ventricle the most potent.
  9. Endocardium:
    anti-coagulant surface.
  10. Fibrous pericardium:
    most external holds your heart, MVA tore fibrous
  11. Atrioventricular valves:
    • *Tricuspid
    • *Mitral/Bi
  12. Semilunar Valves: in pipes
    • Pulmonic semilunar
    • Aortic semilunar
  13. Systole:
    AV valves closed, Ventricular contraction open the semi-lunar
  14. Diastole:
    Atruim contraction fill the ventricles there for av valves are open
  15. Aorta:
    highest velocity blood flow
  16. Coronary arteries:
    MI-squeeze an artery or any blockage-heart starts beating fast.
  17. Coronary Ostia:
    only artery that it is perfused during diastole- the valves protect the coronaries.
  18. Cardiac AP:
    • SA-pacemaker
    • AV node-delay conduction, to allow ventricular filling
    • pukinje fibers-intervate put electricity to the muscle, miocardium
    • P=Atrial depolarization
    • PR=atrial contraction
    • Q=atrial repo but hidden
    • QRS=is ventrical depolarization hides atrial repo because it happens at the same time
    • ST=ventricular contraction
    • T=ventricular repolarization
  20. S1,S2
    • lub=start of systole, closure of AV valves 
    • Dub=closure of aortic and pulmonic diastole
  21. Endothelium:precious
    • damage that cause cardiovascular disease,
    • 1.Leukotrine=inflammation,leukocytes
    • 2.thomboxane=blood clot
    • 3.Prostacyclin=lowers cardiovascular disease by shuting down the rest
    • 4.prostaglandins=pain
  22. Noreepinephrine: epinephrine
    Sympathetic system to increase BP by vasoconstriction
  23. RAAS: renin-angiotensin system
    regulates BP and water balance through the kidneys causes blood vessels to constrict resulting an increase in BP. Also it reabsorbs sodium
  24. Vessels of Blood Flow:
    • Arteries: Velocity, high in aorta aneurysim
    • Arterioles: Resistance, high resistance most damage in the endothelium
    • Capillaries: diffuse gas-exchange
    • Veins: to heart has valves
  25. Arteries Vs.Veins 4 things
    • 1.Away from the heart
    • 2. Valves in veins
    • 3.arteries have higher pressure than veins more muscle elasticity
    • 4.Pump heart makes blood go through your arteries, muscoskeletal pump blood in veins, venous return. Diaphram second heart
  26. Damage to the endothelium
    • Atherosclerosis(plaque)
    • Thrombis(clot)
  27. Nuerological control of total peripheral resistance
    • *Change in diameter of the vessels-vasoconstric and vasodilate
    • *Baroreceptors-pressure
    • *arterial chemoreceptors:C02 receptor increase respirations
  28. BP=CO X PR
    • PR=peripheral resistance, if it goes up your BP goes up as well effected by vasoconstriction
    • CO=Volume per minute
    • HR=heart rate, venricular contraction per min, BEATS
    • SV=stroke volume,volume by beats
  29. Cardiac output
    volume of blood flowing through either the systemic or pulmonary circuit in liters per minute
  30. Preload:
    you want it high, left ventricular end-diastolic volume fill ventricles
  31. Afterload:
    how hard ventricles work to open pipes, it is pathologic if high afterload in ventricles
  32. CO2
    causes vasoconstriction
  33. Lymphatics system:
    • collects excess fluid and returns it to the blood stream,
    • 1.Right lymphatic duct=top right side 1/4
    • 2.thoracic duct=3/4 of lymph
Card Set:
Pathology test 3
2014-11-14 09:36:34
ABG cardiovascular

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