Biology Chapters 7, 8, & 9

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gabby12142
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289210
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Biology Chapters 7, 8, & 9
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2014-11-14 20:07:47
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Biology
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Biology
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biology
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  1. What is animal tissues?
    a group of similar cells that together carry on a particular function
  2. What are the 4 main types of animal tissues?
    • 1. Epithelium
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nervous
  3. What is the integumentary organ systems function?
    • Protection
    • ex. Skin
  4. What is the function of the urinary system?
    • to filter toxins and waste
    • ex. kidneys, bladder
  5. What is digestion?
    the breaking down of foods into small molecules that can be absorbed into the body
  6. What is hydra?
    single opening digestive system
  7. What is nervous coordination?
    Works as neurons send nerve impulses along pathways
  8. What is Hydra?
    has a single simple "nerve net", impulses can go in any direction
  9. What is the reproductive type?
    sexual
  10. What is sexual?
    two parents involves, offspring genetically different from parent
  11. What is a zygote?
    A fertilized egg
  12. What is meiosis?
    Process in which sex cells are made (egg or sperm)
  13. How does the process of meiosis work?
    Begins with one diploid cell and results in 4 haploid cells
  14. What is diploid?
    cell that contains 2 copies of every numbered chromosome
  15. What is haploid?
    Cell that contains one copy of every numbered chromosome
  16. How many number of diploids in a human?
    46 (2n)
  17. How many haploids in a human?
    23 (n)
  18. What are the two stages of meiosis?
    • Meiosis 1
    • Meiosis II
    • Each stage containing prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase
  19. What is the importance of meiosis and Sexual reproduction?
    Genetic material gets exchanged during prophase 1, increasing genetic variability
  20. What are the 2 functions of the male gonads (testes)?
    • 1.Produce sperm
    • 2. Produce testosterone
  21. What are the functions of the male epididymis?
    1. Serves as storage and maturation site for sperm cells
  22. What is the reason for testes located outside body?
    Sperm production is best at a slightly lower temperature than the body
  23. What is the function of the oviducts (fallopian tubes)?
    Conducts unfertilized eggs from ovary to uterus
  24. Where is the location of the embryo and fetus?
    The uterus (womb)
  25. What happens day one of the menstrual cycle?
    menses (period) begins
  26. What happens the 14 day of of menstrual cycle?
    ovulation begins
  27. What is the typical length of the menstrual cycle?
    28 days
  28. what is contraception?
    Success and failure rates
  29. WHat is lowest failure rates?
    abstinence, sterilization, synthetic hormones
  30. What is in vitro fertilization?
    sperm and egg are joined in petri dish, then inserted in female
  31. Which 2 STDs are viral infections?
    • 1. Genital herpes
    • 2. AIDS
  32. Which 3 STDs are bacterial infections?
    • 1. Gonorrhea
    • 2. Syphillis
    • 3. Chlamydia
  33. What did Gregor Mendle do that contributed to biology?
    • He figured out the basic pattern of inheritance
    • Studied Pea plants
    • "Father of genetics"
  34. What is the law of segregation?
    In the formation of genetics, the pairs seperate
  35. What is pure breeding?
    Having 2 genes but also 2 identical alleles
  36. what is phenotype?
    The physical expression
  37. What is multiple alleles?
    in a given population, when there are more than 1 alleles for a particular genotype

  38. Multiple Alleles in Blood
  39. What is polygenes?
    Refers to the traits that result from combined expression of several genesĀ 

    ex. skin color, eye color, height, intelligence
  40. How are SCA, Huntington Disease and CF inherited?
    Mutation that makes a gene defective
  41. What is nondisjunction?
    An error which occurs during meiosis, the chromosomes are not separated properly and the resulting gametes have too many or too few chromosomes
  42. WHat is the relationship between the sex chromosomes and the sex of an individual?
    Chromosome pair #23 determines the sex of the individual
  43. What are 2 examples of human sex-linked traits or disorders?
    • 1. Hemophila
    • 2. Color blindness
  44. What is klinefelter syndrome?
    • A male with the sex chromosomes combination of XXY
    • Has 47 instead of 46 chromosomes
  45. What are the 2 main sources of variation between individuals?
    • 1. Heredity
    • 2. Environment
  46. What is homologous chromosomes?
    chromosomes that are part of a numbered pair, have same genetic information
  47. What is homozygous?
    Two copies of the same allele, AA or aa
  48. What is punnett square?
    diagram used to predict results of a genetic cross, uses alleles
  49. What does DNA stand for?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  50. What is the subunit of DNA?
    Nucleotides
  51. What are the 3 compositions of nucleotides?
    • 1. Phosphate
    • 2. 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
    • 3. Nitrogen-containing base
  52. What are the 4 nitrogen basis of DNA?
    • 1. Adenine
    • 2. Guanine
    • 3. Thymine
    • 4. Cytosine
  53. What are the 3 functions of DNA?
    • 1. Replication
    • 2. Control of Cellular biochemistry, what molecules are made
    • 3. Cell function
  54. Where is the location of most (eukaryotic) DNA?
    Nucleus
  55. What is the sugar in RNA?
    Ribose
  56. What are the 3 types of RNA?
    • 1. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • 2. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  57. What is the function of TRNA?
    Transports amino acid to ribosome during translation
  58. What is the function of mRNA?
    Carries genetic information from nucleus to ribosome
  59. What is the job of rRNA?
    compose ribosome=protein
  60. What is replication?
    DNA to another DNA
  61. What is transcription?
    • Change from DNA to mRNA
    • mRNA can leave the nucleus and go to the ribosomes (tRNA)
  62. What is translation?
    Change from mRNA to tRNA
  63. What is chromosome aberrations?
    • An abnormality in either one chromosome or in the total number of chromosomes of an individualĀ 
    • lead to abnormal phenotype
  64. What is a carciogen?
    something that causes cancer
  65. What are exons?
    • DNA sequences along segments of DNA
    • Are expressed and code for amino acids
  66. What are regulatory proteins?
    Bind to specific regions of DNA and can be 'Turn on or off" the process of transcription
  67. What is plasmid?
    circular piece of DNA located in bacterial cell, outside of it's genome often carries genes for antibiotic resistance
  68. What is a vector?
    A carrier that intrudes foreign genes into cells
  69. What are the approximate amount of human genes?
    20,000-30,000 genes (best estimate 23,000)

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