Biology Chapters 7, 8, & 9
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What is animal tissues?
a group of similar cells that together carry on a particular function
What are the 4 main types of animal tissues?
- 1. Epithelium
- 2. Connective
- 3. Muscle
- 4. Nervous
What is the integumentary organ systems function?
What is the function of the urinary system?
- to filter toxins and waste
- ex. kidneys, bladder
What is digestion?
the breaking down of foods into small molecules that can be absorbed into the body
What is hydra?
single opening digestive system
What is nervous coordination?
Works as neurons send nerve impulses along pathways
What is Hydra?
has a single simple "nerve net", impulses can go in any direction
What is the reproductive type?
What is sexual?
two parents involves, offspring genetically different from parent
What is a zygote?
A fertilized egg
What is meiosis?
Process in which sex cells are made (egg or sperm)
How does the process of meiosis work?
Begins with one diploid cell and results in 4 haploid cells
What is diploid?
cell that contains 2 copies of every numbered chromosome
What is haploid?
Cell that contains one copy of every numbered chromosome
How many number of diploids in a human?
How many haploids in a human?
What are the two stages of meiosis?
- Meiosis 1
- Meiosis II
- Each stage containing prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase
What is the importance of meiosis and Sexual reproduction?
Genetic material gets exchanged during prophase 1, increasing genetic variability
What are the 2 functions of the male gonads (testes)?
- 1.Produce sperm
- 2. Produce testosterone
What are the functions of the male epididymis?
1. Serves as storage and maturation site for sperm cells
What is the reason for testes located outside body?
Sperm production is best at a slightly lower temperature than the body
What is the function of the oviducts (fallopian tubes)?
Conducts unfertilized eggs from ovary to uterus
Where is the location of the embryo and fetus?
The uterus (womb)
What happens day one of the menstrual cycle?
menses (period) begins
What happens the 14 day of of menstrual cycle?
What is the typical length of the menstrual cycle?
what is contraception?
Success and failure rates
WHat is lowest failure rates?
abstinence, sterilization, synthetic hormones
What is in vitro fertilization?
sperm and egg are joined in petri dish, then inserted in female
Which 2 STDs are viral infections?
Which 3 STDs are bacterial infections?
- 1. Gonorrhea
- 2. Syphillis
- 3. Chlamydia
What did Gregor Mendle do that contributed to biology?
- He figured out the basic pattern of inheritance
- Studied Pea plants
- "Father of genetics"
What is the law of segregation?
In the formation of genetics, the pairs seperate
What is pure breeding?
Having 2 genes but also 2 identical alleles
what is phenotype?
The physical expression
What is multiple alleles?
in a given population, when there are more than 1 alleles for a particular genotype
Multiple Alleles in Blood
What is polygenes?
Refers to the traits that result from combined expression of several genes
ex. skin color, eye color, height, intelligence
How are SCA, Huntington Disease and CF inherited?
Mutation that makes a gene defective
What is nondisjunction?
An error which occurs during meiosis, the chromosomes are not separated properly and the resulting gametes have too many or too few chromosomes
WHat is the relationship between the sex chromosomes and the sex of an individual?
Chromosome pair #23 determines the sex of the individual
What are 2 examples of human sex-linked traits or disorders?
- 1. Hemophila
- 2. Color blindness
What is klinefelter syndrome?
- A male with the sex chromosomes combination of XXY
- Has 47 instead of 46 chromosomes
What are the 2 main sources of variation between individuals?
- 1. Heredity
- 2. Environment
What is homologous chromosomes?
chromosomes that are part of a numbered pair, have same genetic information
What is homozygous?
Two copies of the same allele, AA or aa
What is punnett square?
diagram used to predict results of a genetic cross, uses alleles
What does DNA stand for?
What is the subunit of DNA?
What are the 3 compositions of nucleotides?
- 1. Phosphate
- 2. 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
- 3. Nitrogen-containing base
What are the 4 nitrogen basis of DNA?
- 1. Adenine
- 2. Guanine
- 3. Thymine
- 4. Cytosine
What are the 3 functions of DNA?
- 1. Replication
- 2. Control of Cellular biochemistry, what molecules are made
- 3. Cell function
Where is the location of most (eukaryotic) DNA?
What is the sugar in RNA?
What are the 3 types of RNA?
- 1. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
- 2. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
- 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
What is the function of TRNA?
Transports amino acid to ribosome during translation
What is the function of mRNA?
Carries genetic information from nucleus to ribosome
What is the job of rRNA?
What is replication?
DNA to another DNA
What is transcription?
- Change from DNA to mRNA
- mRNA can leave the nucleus and go to the ribosomes (tRNA)
What is translation?
Change from mRNA to tRNA
What is chromosome aberrations?
- An abnormality in either one chromosome or in the total number of chromosomes of an individual
- lead to abnormal phenotype
What is a carciogen?
something that causes cancer
What are exons?
- DNA sequences along segments of DNA
- Are expressed and code for amino acids
What are regulatory proteins?
Bind to specific regions of DNA and can be 'Turn on or off" the process of transcription
What is plasmid?
circular piece of DNA located in bacterial cell, outside of it's genome often carries genes for antibiotic resistance
What is a vector?
A carrier that intrudes foreign genes into cells
What are the approximate amount of human genes?
20,000-30,000 genes (best estimate 23,000)
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