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what is the characteristic of the endocrine system?
secrete hormones into the bloodstream
distinguish the difference between the feedback mechanisms.
- negative feedback: hormone causes the process to slow down/turn off
- positive feedback: hormone causes the process to speed up
where are the endocrine glands located?
- MAJOR GLANDS:
- pituitary gland
- pineal gland
- thyroid gland
- parathyroid gland
- adrenal gland
- ORGANS CONTAINING ENDOCRINE CELLS:
- GI tract
- pancreatic islets
where do these hormones target?
- thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)=Thyroid
- prolactin (PRL)=Breast
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)=Adrenal gland
- growth hormone (GH)=Bones
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)=ovary & testes
- Luteinizing hormone (LH)=ovulation
what is the problem in adults if too much growth hormone?
pituitary gigantism - extensive growth in height and lead to an increase of blood sugar
what are the components of blood?
- erythrocytes: 44% of blood
- buffy coat: 1% of blood; contains leukocytes and platelets
- plasma: 55% of blood; straw-colored
what is the function of leukocytes?
initiate immune response; defend against harmful substances
what is the function of antibodies?
binds to antigen until leukocyte can completely kill or remove the antigen, are transported in plasma
explain what is hematocrit
- the percentage of the volume of all formed elements in the blood
- adult male: 42%-56%
- adult female: 38%-46%
- can be view by preparing a blood smear
what are the components of hemoglobin?
- capable of reversibly transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
- consist of 2 globin protein molecule: (2) alpha & (2) beta chains which contain iron (Fe2+) molecule
- each can bind a combination of 4 oxygen molecule
what are the life span of the cells of the formed elements?
- erythrocyte: 120 days
- leukocytes: varies from 12 hrs (neutrophil) to years (lymphocyte)
- platelets: 8-10 days
what are the blood types?
what are the steps of blood flow?
- L atrium
- L AV valve
- L ventricle
- aortic valve
- systemic circuit (body)
- IVC & SVC
- R atrium
- R AV valve
- R ventricle
- pulmonary valve
- pulmonary trunk
- R&L pulmonary arteries
- L&R pulmonary vein
- L artium
what are the steps of the heart conducting system?
- SA node
- AV node
- Bundle of HIS
- R&L bundle branches
- Purkinje fiber
what is the pathway of the pulmonary circulation?
- located on the R side of heart
- conveys blood to the lung and back to the L side of heart.
what is the pathway of the systemic circulation?
- located on L side of heart and arteries & veins
- conveys blood to most body tissue and back to the R side of heart
circulation of R coronary branches
- R marginal artery
- posterior interventricular artery
circulation of L coronary branches
- anterior interventricular artery
- circumflex artery
name the coronary circulation's major veins.
- great cardiac vein: runs along anterior interventicle artery
- middle cardiac vein: " " posterior " "
- small cardiac vein: travels close to marginal artery
- all veins drain into coronary sinus, which drain into R atrium
what chambers in the heart receives oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?
- oxygenated: Left side of heart (R ventricle --> pulmonary artery)
- deoxygenated: Right side of heart (Superior vena cava --> R atrium)
what is the difference between the base and apex of the heart? (what makes up what)
- base: posteriorsuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the L atrium
- apex: conical end; it projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the L side of the body
what are the layers of the heart?
- (from superficial to deep)
what is the intercalated disc of the heart?
- neighboring cardiac muscle cells in the walls of heart chambers have formed specialized cell-cell contacts.
- electronically and mechanically link the cells together and permit the immediate passage of muscle impulse.
parts of a blood vessel.
3 classes of blood vessels: arteries (carry blood away from heart), capillaries, and veins (return blood to heart)
name thee blood vessel tunics from inner to outer layer.
- tunica intima
- tunica media
- tunica externa
distinguish the types of arteries.
- elastic arteries: longest arteries; are near the heart; allow to stretch under the increase of pressure generated by blood.
- muscular arteries: medium-size arteries; possess elastic fibers (internal elastic lamina & external elastic lamina)
- arterioles: smallest arteries; have less than 6 layers of smooth muscle
distinguish the types of capillaries.
- continuous: most common; form continuous and complete lining aided by the presence of tight junction
- fenestrated: allow fluid exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
- sinusoids: have large gaps; allows transport of large molecules and cells to and from the blood
what are precapillary sphincter?
- allows control amount of blood flow going into tissue/true capillaries.
- opens when tissue needs nutrients, and closes tissues' needs are met.
occurs through the walls of postcapillary venules
- systolic: contraction of a chamber
- diastolic: relaxation of a chamber
distinguish the hepatic portal veins.
- inferior mesenteric vein: drains the distal part of the colon
- splenic vein: drains the spleen, pancreas, and stomach
- superior mesenteric vein: drains blood from the small intestines, proximal part if the colon, pancreas, and stomach