exam 3

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  1. what is the characteristic of the endocrine system?
    secrete hormones into the bloodstream
  2. distinguish the difference between the feedback mechanisms.
    • negative feedback: hormone causes the process to slow down/turn off
    • positive feedback: hormone causes the process to speed up
  3. where are the endocrine glands located?
    • pituitary gland
    • pineal gland
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid gland
    • adrenal gland
    • hypothalamus
    • thymus
    • heart
    • kidney
    • GI tract
    • pancreatic islets
  4. where do these hormones target?

    • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)=Thyroid
    • prolactin (PRL)=Breast
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)=Adrenal gland
    • growth hormone (GH)=Bones
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)=ovary & testes
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)=ovulation
  5. what is the problem in adults if too much growth hormone?
    pituitary gigantism - extensive growth in height and lead to an increase of blood sugar
  6. what are the components of blood?
    • erythrocytes: 44% of blood
    • buffy coat: 1% of blood; contains leukocytes and platelets
    • plasma: 55% of blood; straw-colored
  7. what is the function of leukocytes?
    initiate immune response; defend against harmful substances
  8. what is the function of antibodies?
    binds to antigen until leukocyte can completely kill or remove the antigen, are transported in plasma
  9. explain what is hematocrit
    • the percentage of the volume of all formed elements in the blood
    • adult male: 42%-56%
    • adult female: 38%-46%
    • can be view by preparing a blood smear
  10. what are the components of hemoglobin?
    • capable of reversibly transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
    • consist of 2 globin protein molecule: (2) alpha & (2) beta chains which contain iron (Fe2+) molecule
    • each can bind a combination of 4 oxygen molecule
  11. what are the life span of the cells of the formed elements?
    • erythrocyte: 120 days
    • leukocytes: varies from 12 hrs (neutrophil) to years (lymphocyte)
    • platelets: 8-10 days

    what are the blood types?
    Image Upload

    what are the steps of blood flow?
    • L atrium
    • L AV valve
    • L ventricle
    • aortic valve
    • aorta
    • systemic circuit  (body)
    • IVC & SVC
    • R atrium
    • R AV valve
    • R ventricle
    • pulmonary valve
    • pulmonary trunk
    • R&L pulmonary arteries
    • lungs
    • L&R pulmonary vein
    • L artium

    what are the steps of the heart conducting system?
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • Bundle of HIS
    • R&L bundle branches
    • Purkinje fiber
  15. what is the pathway of the pulmonary circulation?
    • located on the R side of heart
    • conveys blood to the lung and back to the L side of heart.
  16. what is the pathway of the systemic circulation?
    • located on L side of heart and arteries & veins
    • conveys blood to most body tissue and back to the R side of heart
  17. circulation of R coronary branches
    • R marginal artery
    • posterior interventricular artery
  18. circulation of L coronary branches
    • anterior interventricular artery
    • circumflex artery
  19. name the coronary circulation's major veins.
    • great cardiac vein: runs along anterior interventicle artery
    • middle cardiac vein: " " posterior " "
    • small cardiac vein: travels close to marginal artery 
    • all veins drain into coronary sinus, which drain into R atrium
  20. what chambers in the heart receives oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?
    • oxygenated: Left side of heart (R ventricle --> pulmonary artery)
    • deoxygenated: Right side of heart (Superior vena cava --> R atrium)
  21. what is the difference between the base and apex of the heart? (what makes up what)
    • base: posteriorsuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the L atrium
    • apex: conical end; it projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the L side of the body
  22. what are the layers of the heart?
    • (from superficial to deep)
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium 
  23. what is the intercalated disc of the heart?
    • neighboring cardiac muscle cells in the walls of heart chambers have formed specialized cell-cell contacts.
    • electronically and mechanically link the cells together and permit the immediate passage of muscle impulse.
  24. parts of a blood vessel.
    3 classes of blood vessels: arteries (carry blood away from heart), capillaries, and veins (return blood to heart)
  25. name thee blood vessel tunics from inner to outer layer.
    • tunica intima
    • tunica media
    • tunica externa
  26. distinguish the types of arteries.
    • elastic arteries: longest arteries; are near the heart; allow to stretch under the increase of pressure generated by blood.
    • muscular arteries: medium-size arteries; possess elastic fibers (internal elastic lamina & external elastic lamina)
    • arterioles: smallest arteries; have less than 6 layers of smooth muscle
  27. distinguish the types of capillaries.
    • continuous: most common; form continuous and complete lining aided by the presence of tight junction 
    • fenestrated: allow fluid exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
    • sinusoids: have large gaps; allows transport of large molecules and cells to and from the blood
  28. what are precapillary sphincter?
    • allows control amount of blood flow going into tissue/true capillaries.
    • opens when tissue needs nutrients, and closes tissues' needs are met.
  29. define diapedesis.
    occurs through the walls of postcapillary venules
  30. blood pressure
    • systolic: contraction of a chamber
    • diastolic: relaxation of a chamber
  31. distinguish the hepatic portal veins.
    • inferior mesenteric vein: drains the distal part of the colon
    • splenic vein: drains the spleen, pancreas, and stomach
    • superior mesenteric vein: drains blood from the small intestines, proximal part if the colon, pancreas, and stomach
Card Set:
exam 3
2014-11-17 08:56:16

chapter 20,21,22,23
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