Card Set Information
what is the characteristic of the endocrine system?
secrete hormones into the bloodstream
distinguish the difference between the feedback mechanisms.
: hormone causes the process to slow down/turn off
: hormone causes the process to speed up
where are the endocrine glands located?
ORGANS CONTAINING ENDOCRINE CELLS:
where do these hormones target?
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)=Thyroid
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)=Adrenal gland
growth hormone (GH)=Bones
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)=ovary & testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)=ovulation
what is the problem in adults if too much growth hormone?
pituitary gigantism - extensive growth in height and lead to an increase of blood sugar
what are the components of blood?
: 44% of blood
: 1% of blood; contains leukocytes and platelets
: 55% of blood; straw-colored
what is the function of leukocytes?
initiate immune response; defend against harmful substances
what is the function of antibodies?
binds to antigen until leukocyte can completely kill or remove the antigen, are transported in plasma
explain what is hematocrit
the percentage of the volume of all formed elements in the blood
can be view by preparing a blood smear
what are the components of hemoglobin?
capable of reversibly transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
consist of 2 globin protein molecule
: (2) alpha & (2) beta chains which contain iron (Fe
each can bind a combination of 4 oxygen molecule
what are the life span of the cells of the formed elements?
: 120 days
: varies from 12 hrs (neutrophil) to years (lymphocyte)
: 8-10 days
what are the blood types?
what are the steps of blood flow?
L AV valve
systemic circuit (body)
IVC & SVC
R AV valve
R&L pulmonary arteries
L&R pulmonary vein
what are the steps of the heart conducting system?
Bundle of HIS
R&L bundle branches
what is the pathway of the pulmonary circulation?
located on the R side of heart
conveys blood to the lung and back to the L side of heart.
what is the pathway of the systemic circulation?
located on L side of heart and arteries & veins
conveys blood to most body tissue and back to the R side of heart
circulation of R coronary branches
R marginal artery
posterior interventricular artery
circulation of L coronary branches
anterior interventricular artery
name the coronary circulation's major veins.
great cardiac vein
: runs along anterior interventicle artery
middle cardiac vein
: " " posterior " "
small cardiac vein
: travels close to marginal artery
all veins drain into coronary sinus, which drain into R atrium
what chambers in the heart receives oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?
: Left side of heart (R ventricle --> pulmonary artery)
: Right side of heart (Superior vena cava --> R atrium)
what is the difference between the base and apex of the heart? (what makes up what)
: posteriorsuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the L atrium
: conical end; it projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the L side of the body
what are the layers of the heart?
(from superficial to deep)
what is the intercalated disc of the heart?
neighboring cardiac muscle cells in the walls of heart chambers have formed specialized cell-cell contacts.
electronically and mechanically link the cells together and permit the immediate passage of muscle impulse.
parts of a blood vessel.
3 classes of blood vessels: arteries (carry blood away from heart), capillaries, and veins (return blood to heart)
name thee blood vessel tunics from inner to outer layer.
distinguish the types of arteries.
: longest arteries; are near the heart; allow to stretch under the increase of pressure generated by blood.
: medium-size arteries; possess elastic fibers (internal elastic lamina & external elastic lamina)
: smallest arteries; have less than 6 layers of smooth muscle
distinguish the types of capillaries.
: most common; form continuous and complete lining aided by the presence of tight junction
: allow fluid exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
: have large gaps; allows transport of large molecules and cells to and from the blood
what are precapillary sphincter?
allows control amount of blood flow going into tissue/true capillaries.
opens when tissue needs nutrients, and closes tissues' needs are met.
occurs through the walls of postcapillary venules
: contraction of a chamber
: relaxation of a chamber
distinguish the hepatic portal veins.
inferior mesenteric vein
: drains the distal part of the colon
: drains the spleen, pancreas, and stomach
superior mesenteric vein
: drains blood from the small intestines, proximal part if the colon, pancreas, and stomach