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A personal ad on Craigslist that states, Looking for a handsome guy on the same wavelength as me, is an example of which attraction principle?
Evaluation apprehension should lead to...
Moreland and beaches confederate in the classroom study suggests that students who attend class most often will be ____ compared to students who rarely or never attend class
Seen as more attractive
Which country has the highest crime rate?
Definition of aggression
Behavior intended to injure another who is motivated to avoid it
2 characteristics of aggression
- -it is behavior
- *does not mean angry feelings
- -it is intended
- *does not mean accidental
Definition of assertiveness
Behavior intended to express dominance of confidence
Is assertiveness = aggression?
No it is not
Definition of indirect aggression
Attempt to hurt another without obvious face to face conflict
Example of indirect aggression
Spreading a rumor that your ex has STD
What is direct aggression?
Behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face
Example of direct aggression
A hockey player punches another player
Definition of emotional aggression
Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings
Example of emotional aggression
A child throws a temper tantrum after mom refuses to buy candy
Definition of instrumental aggression
Hurting another to accomplish another (nonaggressive) goal
Example of instrumental aggression
A mother spanks child to discourage him from repeating a tantrum
Theories on aggression) Freudian theory (3)
-we have instinct to be aggressive
-aggression is cathartic
Theories on aggression) 2 criticisms of Freudian theory
-no empirical support
-catharsis does not reduce aggression if anything it often increases aggression
Theories on aggression) basis of hydraulic theory (Freudian)
We store aggression which in turn needs to be let out
Theories on aggression) what has twin studies shown us regarding aggression? (biological theories)
Aggression is correlated higher among mono twins than di twins
Theories on aggression) bio theories: amygdala
amygdala is activated more when aggression behaviors ensue
Theories on aggression) bio theories: serotonin
The more serotonin activity the more aggressive behavior can be suppressed
Theories on aggression) bio theories: testosterone
The more testosterone, the more aggressive the person will be
Theories on aggression) Gender differences: is there a clear sex difference in reporting feelings of anger?
No clear evidence
Theories on aggression) gender differences: what form of aggression do men usually use?
- More physical, direct forms of aggression
Theories on aggression) gender differences : what form of aggression do women usually display?
- More indirect forms of aggression
- *spreading rumors
Gender difference in aggression within heterosexual relationships) Women are more likely to...
- Use physical aggression against partners
- *slapping, punching
Gender difference in aggression within heterosexual relationships) men are more likely...
To do more physical harm thus get more attention
Gender) which gender commits the vast majority of homicides?
Gender differences in aggression) men are more likely to attack...
Physically when unprovoked
Gender difference in aggression) Bettencourt & miller meta analysis results
Found that when provocation is involved, gender difference in physical aggression is reduced or eliminated
Alcohol AND aggression
Alcohol increases aggression in men, women, hostile/non hostile people
Why does alcohol increase aggression?
Impairs normal inhibitory processes
ALCOHOL and the way we process information
When consuming alcohol we are more likely to focus more on immediate feelings and reactions than to consider the larger picture
Alcohol & aggression) bartholow & Heinz experiment results
After seeing alcohol images, subjects responded faster to aggressive words than to neutral words
Frustration-aggression hypothesis) original theory
Aggression is an automatic response to any blocking of goal-directed behavior
- *threats to one's relationships= someone flirts with gf3
- *threats to self= someone insults you
- *environmental frustrations = traffic jam when running late
Frustration-aggression hypothesis) limitations of the frustration-aggression (3)
-people don't always act aggressively when frustrated
-theory doesn't specify what sources of frustration are
-can't account for instrumental aggression
Frustration-aggression hypothesis) revised : (2)
-One of the consequences of frustration can be aggression
-any unpleasant stimulation will lead to emotional aggression to the extent that it generates unpleasant feelings
How did the frustration-aggression revised hypotheses structure out?
Frustration, pain, heat, and any other unpleasant experience will lead to negative feelings which then turns into emotional aggression
How did the original frustration-aggression hypothesis structure out?
Frustration (only frustration) led to all forms of aggression
Heat hypothesis) heat is correlated with..
-MLB pitchers throwing more balls at batters
-more aggressive horn honking
What's premise of heat hypothesis ?
Hot temps correlated with higher crime rate and aggression
Social learning theory and aggression
- Learn aggression by observing others
- *boob studies
Learning aggression) boob studies results: more imitative aggression occurred when? (2)
-model was rewarded
- -IDing with model was high
- *same gender
- *friend or teacher
effect of observed consequences on imitative behavior results: (3) (look at graph)
-if model was rewarded, boys did more than girls
-if model was punished, boys did a lot more than girls (almost none)
-if there weren't any consequences, boys did more
Mere presence of weapons) what happens when exposed to aggressive stimuli (guns, knives)
The mere presence of aggressive stimuli enhances aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions
3 ways to measure aggression
3 criticisms of lab studies
-measures are artificial
-setting is artificial
-participants know they're being observed
Lab and field measures correlation?
Correlation is very high meaning aggression measures in the lab represents the same construct as aggression in natural settings