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  1. A personal ad on Craigslist that states, Looking for a handsome guy on the same wavelength as me, is an example of which attraction principle?
  2. Evaluation apprehension should lead to...
    Social facilitation
  3. Moreland and beaches confederate in the classroom study suggests that students who attend class most often will be ____ compared to students who rarely or never attend class
    Seen as more attractive
  4. Which country has the highest crime rate?
  5. Definition of aggression
    Behavior intended to injure another who is motivated to avoid it
  6. 2 characteristics of aggression
    • -it is behavior
    • *does not mean angry feelings

    • -it is intended
    • *does not mean accidental
  7. Definition of assertiveness
    Behavior intended to express dominance of confidence
  8. Is assertiveness = aggression?
    No it is not
  9. Definition of indirect aggression
    Attempt to hurt another without obvious face to face conflict
  10. Example of indirect aggression
    Spreading a rumor that your ex has STD
  11. What is direct aggression?
    Behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face
  12. Example of direct aggression
    A hockey player punches another player
  13. Definition of emotional aggression
    Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings
  14. Example of emotional aggression
    A child throws a temper tantrum after mom refuses to buy candy
  15. Definition of instrumental aggression
    Hurting another to accomplish another (nonaggressive) goal
  16. Example of instrumental aggression
    A mother spanks child to discourage him from repeating a tantrum
  17. Theories on aggression) Freudian theory (3)
    -hydraulic theory

    -we have instinct to be aggressive

    -aggression is cathartic
  18. Theories on aggression) 2 criticisms of Freudian theory
    -no empirical support

    -catharsis does not reduce aggression if anything it often increases aggression
  19. Theories on aggression) basis of hydraulic theory (Freudian)
    We store aggression which in turn needs to be let out
  20. Theories on aggression) what has twin studies shown us regarding aggression? (biological theories)
    Aggression is correlated higher among mono twins than di twins
  21. Theories on aggression) bio theories: amygdala
    amygdala is activated more when aggression behaviors ensue
  22. Theories on aggression) bio theories: serotonin
    The more serotonin activity the more aggressive behavior can be suppressed
  23. Theories on aggression) bio theories: testosterone
    The more testosterone, the more aggressive the person will be
  24. Theories on aggression) Gender differences: is there a clear sex difference in reporting feelings of anger?
    No clear evidence
  25. Theories on aggression) gender differences: what form of aggression do men usually use?
    • More physical, direct forms of aggression
    • *fistfights
  26. Theories on aggression) gender differences : what form of aggression do women usually display?
    • More indirect forms of aggression
    • *spreading rumors
  27. Gender difference in aggression within heterosexual relationships) Women are more likely to...
    • Use physical aggression against partners
    • *slapping, punching
  28. Gender difference in aggression within heterosexual relationships) men are more likely...
    To do more physical harm thus get more attention
  29. Gender) which gender commits the vast majority of homicides?
  30. Gender differences in aggression) men are more likely to attack...
    Physically when unprovoked
  31. Gender difference in aggression) Bettencourt & miller meta analysis results
    Found that when provocation is involved, gender difference in physical aggression is reduced or eliminated
  32. Alcohol AND aggression
    Alcohol increases aggression in men, women, hostile/non hostile people
  33. Why does alcohol increase aggression?
    Impairs normal inhibitory processes
  34. ALCOHOL and the way we process information
    When consuming alcohol we are more likely to focus more on immediate feelings and reactions than to consider the larger picture
  35. Alcohol & aggression) bartholow & Heinz experiment results
    After seeing alcohol images, subjects responded faster to aggressive words than to neutral words
  36. Frustration-aggression hypothesis) original theory
    Aggression is an automatic response to any blocking of goal-directed behavior

    • *threats to one's relationships= someone flirts with gf3
    • *threats to self= someone insults you
    • *environmental frustrations = traffic jam when running late
  37. Frustration-aggression hypothesis) limitations of the frustration-aggression (3)
    -people don't always act aggressively when frustrated

    -theory doesn't specify what sources of frustration are

    -can't account for instrumental aggression
  38. Frustration-aggression hypothesis) revised : (2)
    -One of the consequences of frustration can be aggression

    -any unpleasant stimulation will lead to emotional aggression to the extent that it generates unpleasant feelings
  39. How did the frustration-aggression revised hypotheses structure out?
    Frustration, pain, heat, and any other unpleasant experience will lead to negative feelings which then turns into emotional aggression
  40. How did the original frustration-aggression hypothesis structure out?
    Frustration (only frustration) led to all forms of aggression
  41. Heat hypothesis) heat is correlated with..
    -MLB pitchers throwing more balls at batters

    -more aggressive horn honking



    -urban riots
  42. What's premise of heat hypothesis ?
    Hot temps correlated with higher crime rate and aggression
  43. Social learning theory and aggression
    • Learn aggression by observing others
    • *boob studies
  44. Learning aggression) boob studies results: more imitative aggression occurred when? (2)
    -model was rewarded

    • -IDing with model was high
    • *same gender
    • *friend or teacher
  45. effect of observed consequences on imitative behavior results: (3) (look at graph)
    -if model was rewarded, boys did more than girls

    -if model was punished, boys did a lot more than girls (almost none)

    -if there weren't any consequences, boys did more
  46. Mere presence of weapons) what happens when exposed to aggressive stimuli (guns, knives)
    The mere presence of aggressive stimuli enhances aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions
  47. 3 ways to measure aggression
    -electric shocks

    -noise blasts

    -hot sauce
  48. 3 criticisms of lab studies
    -measures are artificial

    -setting is artificial

    -participants know they're being observed
  49. Lab and field measures correlation?
    Correlation is very high meaning aggression measures in the lab represents the same construct as aggression in natural settings
Card Set:
2014-11-16 06:06:03
Social Psychology

Aggression I
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