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  1. What are the two types of immunity?
    • innate/natural
    • adaptive/acquired
  2. What type of immunity generates memory?
  3. What is the 1st line of immunity defense?
    • skin
    • mucous membranes & secretions
    • natural bacteria in the GI
    • (innate/natural)
  4. What is the 2nd line of immunity defense?
    • immune cells
    • inflammation
    • complement
    • antimicrobial substances
    • (innate/natural)
  5. What is the 3rd line of immunity defense?
    • specialized lymphocytes:
    • b-cells
    • t-cells
    • (adaptive/acquired)
  6. Where does active immunity occur?
    within the animal's own immune system
  7. Where does passive immunity occur?
    passed on from one animal to another
  8. What kind of response is driven by B-cells?
    • humoral
    • circulating defense mechanism
  9. What kind of response is drive by T-cells?
    • cell mediated
    • cells come in contact with and destroy the foreign object
  10. Where are T-cells made?
    in the thymus
  11. When is the thymus most active and why?
    • during fetal development
    • as the organism matures, the thymus becomes inactive due to the formation of sex cells during puberty
  12. Where are B-cells created?
    in bone marrow
  13. What is similar about B-cells and T-cells?
    • both come from stem cells
    • both reside in lymph nodes
  14. What is an immunoglobin?
    • a protein that can bind to an antigen
    • antibodies contained in gamma-globins that circulate in the blood stream
  15. How are immunoglobins divided?
    into 5 groups based on chemical and functional characteristics
  16. What are immunoglobins produced by?
    lymphocytes and plasma cells
  17. What is the primary Ig found in the body?
  18. What is the primary function of IgA?
    • protect against pathogens
    • 2nd most abundant type
  19. What is the primary function of IgD?
    • activates basophils and mast cells
    • part of B-cell receptors
  20. What is the primary function of IgE?
    • protect against parasitic worms; responsible for allergic reactions
    • ex: sonophils
  21. What is the primary function of IgG?
    crosses from mother to baby through the placenta
  22. What is the primary function of IgM?
    responsible for early stages of immunity
  23. What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?
    • drains/filters interstitial fluid
    • helps with immunity by:bringing foreign substances in contact with immune cells
  24. What are lymphatic vessels?
    one-way pathway that caries lymph back to the tissues of the heart via the cranial vena cava
  25. What are lymph nodes?
    • knots of lymphoid tissue that filter the lymph
    • house lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages
  26. What is the spleen?
    • largest lymph organ
    • filters blood
    • reserve for platelets
    • stores RBCs
    • works with liver to break down erythrocytes
  27. What are the areas of the spleen?
    • red pulp: blood-filtering portion
    • white pulp: lymphatic portion
  28. When is the lymphatic system most active?
    during fetal development
  29. How does interstitial fluid enter lymph nodes?
    through apharent lymphatic vessels with the help of gravity and animal movement
  30. How does interstitial fluid exit lymph nodes?
    pushed out through epherent vessels
  31. What is the function of the tonsils?
    help filter fluid from the head
  32. What is the hepatic portal system?
    takes blood to the liver through a larger portal vein and then returns the blood back to the heart through the caudal vena cava
Card Set:
2014-11-16 20:18:38

animal anatomy
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