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Kingdom Animalia: Give four characteristics of being an 'animalia'.
- heterotrophic 9cannot make own food)
- eukaryotic (but no cell wall)
- multicellular (allows for tissues and organ systems)
- most are motile but some are sessile mos of their lives
Kingdom Animalia: What is the difference between and invertebrate and a vertebrate? Give an example of each?
- Invertebrates: animals without backbones.
- ex) squid
- Vertebrates: animals with backbones
- ex) mammals
Define incomplete and complete digestive system. List an example of an animal for each.
- Complete gut: mouth and anus, mouth takes in food, anus releases digested wastes,so removal of waste does not interfere with food intake.
- ex) humans
- Incomplete gut: mouth only, takes in food and releases digested waste.
- ex) planaria
Phylum Porifera: List the three kinds of body symmetry. What kind do sponges have?
- Bilateral symmetry
- Radial symmetry
- Sponges are asymmetrical
Phylum Porifera: Mature sponges live attached to one spot, this is referred to as being _____.
Mature sponges live attached to one spot, this is referred to as being sessile.
Phylum Porifera: What structures provide support to sponges?
Spicules provide support to sponges.
Phylum Porifera: Sponges have two distinct stages in their life cycle. Describe the sessile form of the animal vs. the form of the animal that can swim.
- The sessile form of a sponge occurs after the larvae leaves the osculum. It then arrives at a new location and grows into a sessile sponge.
- After fertilization occurs, the zygote forms into a swimming larvae. This is the motile part of its life cycle.
Phylum Cnidaria: Give an example of a cniderian in both medusa and polyp form.
- Polyp: Vase shaped and sessile.
- ex) sea anemone
- Medusa: Bell shaped and free swimming.
- ex) jellyfish
Phylum Cnidaria: What allows the tentacle of cnidarians to sting?
All members have stinging cells called nematocytes located on their tentacles.
Phylum Cnidaria: What are 2 reasons for stinging tentacles in cniderians?
Phylum Cnidaria: How can hydra reproduce asexually? Do all cnidarians reproduce his way?
- Hydra reproduce asexually by regenerating body parts.
- All other cnidarians reproduce asexually by budding, sexually, and are monoecious.
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: Give an example of a worm from each of the three phylums.
- Phylum platyhelminthes - flatworms
- Phylum nematoda - round worms
- Phylum annelida - segmented worms
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: How do the coeloms of worms differ in flatworms, round worms, and segmented worms?
- Flatworms are acoelomates. They have no body cavity with the three layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm).
- Round worms are pseudocoelomates. They have body space for organs, however, not fully line by mesoderm.
- Segmented worms are coelomates. They have true body cavities, completely lined with mesoderm.
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: How do you get infected with a tapeworm?
- 1. Adult tapeworms shed proglottids filled with eggs. they pass out with feces.
- 2. Cow (intermediate host) eats grass or grain infected with proglottids.
- 3. Eggs develop into larvae in cow intestine and burrow into blood vessels, stay as dormant larvae capsules.
- 4. Humans eat under cooked beef, larvae capsule is digested and releases a tapeworm.
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: List some parasitic round worms (nematodes) that infect humans.
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: Which phylum of worm(s) have a complete digestive tract with both mouth and an anus?
- Phylum nematoda (round worms)
- Phylum annelida (segmented worms)
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: List 2 similarities and 2 specific differences between round worms and flatworms.
- bilateral symmetry
- two nerve cords
- flatworms are acoelomates, round worms are pseudocoelomates
- flatworms are monoecious, round worms are diecious
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: What causes the severe inflammation in Elephantisis when Falaria worms attacks a human?
- Blocking of lymph vessels by adults causes swelling. Area of the body becomes abnormally large damaging tissues. It causes the restriction of circulation in the body causing the build up of fluids.
- Elephantiasis causes the severe inflammation when filaria attacks a human
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: Describe three features in an Earthworm that would indicate it is more advanced than a nematode.
- Coelomates: has true body coelom, completely lined with mesoderm.
- Metamerism: true body segments that improve locomotion.
- Setae: bristles on ventral side for locomotion.
- 5 hearts: thick lateral blood vessels that pump blood.
Phylums Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida: What are the 5 steps in the life cycle of a hookworm that can lead a healthy dog to be completely sick with heartworm disease?
- 1. Adult lives in dogs and inhabit various organs.
- 2. In intestine, hookworms mate and females lay up to 200 000 eggs/day. (pass in feces)
- 3. Infection occurs when the dog consumes contaminated food or water or by mosquito vector.
- 4. Eggs hatch in intestine. Larvae burrow through the intestine -> enter bloodstream and carried to the liver, heart and then lungs.
- 5. Larvae grow in lungs for 10 days, the worms migrate up the windpipe, are coughed up and swallowed. they travel back to the intestine.
Phylum Mollusca: Name an organism found from each of the three major classes of mollusks.
- Class Bivalva (clams, oysters, and mussels)
- Class Gastropoda (snails)
- Class Cephalopoda (squid and octopus)
Phylum Mollusca: Where are mollusks found?
Mollusks are found in marine and terrestrial habitats.
Phylum Mollusca: Describe how gas exchange occurs in an aquatic snail, does it have an open or closed circulatory system?
- heart pumps O2 blood through blood vessels
- O2 blood empties into sinuses and bathes tissues
- Deoxy-O2 blood drains from sinuses back through blood vessels to gills
- open circulatory system
Phylum Mollusca: Define chromatophore.
- pigment-containing cell in the deeper layers of the skin of animals
- the distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism
- mollusc's chromatophores are primarily used for camouflage and for signalling
Phylum Anthropoda: Compare the breathing of grasshoppers to a crayfish.
- spiracles - holes in exoskeleton allow for diffusion of gases.
- gills - feathery structures that allow gas exchange in water
Phylum Anthropoda: Compare the excretory system of a grasshopper to a crayfish.
- malphighian tubes
- green glands
Phylum Anthropoda: Name the 5 major classes of arthropod phylum.
- Class Insecta
- Class Arachnids
- Class Crustacea
- Class Chilopoda
- Class Diplopoda
Phylum Anthropoda: What do all crustaceans have in common?
- 2 body regions
- 2 pairs of antennae
- open circulatory system
- 5 or more pairs of legs
Phylum Anthropoda: What are the 2 major body regions of the crayfish or spider?
Phylum Anthropoda: What are 2 visible exterior differences between insects and crustaceans?
- 3 body regions
- 1 or 2 pairs of wings (adult)
- 2 antennae
- 2 body regions
- 2 pairs of antennae
Phylum Anthropoda: Explain the steps of incomplete metamorphosis vs. complete metamorphosis.
- Complete Metamorphosis:Larvae and adults are very different. Pupa formed.
- ex) beetles, flies, bees, butterflies, ants
- eggs > larva > pupa > adult
- Incomplete Metamorphosis:The nymph more or less resembles the adult. There is no pupa formed.ex) grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragonflies
- eggs > nymphs > adults
Phylum Echinodermata: Why is the water vascular system important to seastars? How does it work?
- How echinoderms move.
- 1. Water enters in through madreporite (on the top)
- 2. Thousands of tube-feet fill with sea water.
- 3. Move foot by expanding it, muscles retract them.
- 4. Tube feet rip open mussels, clams, oysters.
Phylum Echinodermata: How do echinoderms regenerate asexually?
They are capable of regenerating even one arm into a whole new body. This is only possible if the arm includes part of the central disc.