Cardiovascular System

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Author:
alyssau12
ID:
289380
Filename:
Cardiovascular System
Updated:
2014-11-16 16:42:56
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ANSC
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Description:
animal anatomy
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  1. What is systemic circulation?
    the movement of oxygenated blood to all areas of the body and returning the de-oxygenated blood to the heart
  2. What is pulmonary circulation?
    circulates blood through the lungs
  3. What are the divisions of the circulatory system?
    • lymph vascular system
    • blood vascular system
  4. What are the types of blood vessels?
    • arteries
    • veins
    • capillaries
  5. tunica intermica-
    inner structure of blood vessels
  6. tunica media-
    part of the blood vessel that dilates and constricts
  7. tunica externa-
    CT fibers that give blood vessels their structure
  8. de-oxygenated blood goes to the:
    right side of the heart
  9. oxygenated blood goes to the:
    left side of the heart
  10. pericardium:
    fibrous outer layer of the heart
  11. epicardium:
    serous covering between the pericardium and endocardium
  12. endocardium:
    inner-endothelial lining found in the chambers and valves
  13. myocardium:
    thick, striated, muscle layer that causes the heart to pump
  14. which valve is on the left side of the heart?
    bicuspid valve
  15. which valve is on the right side of the heart?
    tricuspid valve
  16. What is the chordae tendinae?
    • prevents valves from prolapse
    • supported by papillary muscles
  17. What is the sinoatrial node of the heart?
    • "pacemaker" of cardiac system
    • start of action potential in cardiac muscle
  18. What does the atrioventricular node do?
    slows down the propagation of action potential in cardiac muscle
  19. What do purkinjie fibers do?
    create the action potential
  20. What is a cardiac cycle?
    • one complete contraction and relaxation of the heart
    • heartbeat
  21. diastole:
    relaxation of the heart chamber prior to and during the filling of that chamber
  22. systole:
    contraction of the heart chamber to drive blood out of it
  23. What valves are open/closed during diastole?
    • AV open
    • SL shut
  24. What valves are open/closed during atrial systole?
    • AV open
    • SL shut
  25. What valves are open/closed during isovolumetric ventricular contraction?
    • AV shut
    • SL shut
  26. What valves are open/closed during ventricular ejection?
    • AV shut
    • SL open
  27. What valves are open/closed during isovolumetric ventricular relaxation?
    • AV shut
    • SL shut
  28. What is cardiac output?
    the amount of blood pumped from a ventricle into its vessel in a certain amount of time
  29. cardiac output is the product of:
    • heart rate and stroke volume
    • SV * HR= Q
  30. What can you do to increase cardiac output?
    • increase stroke volume
    • increase heart rate
    • increase both
  31. How much blood is in an organism?
    8-10% of their body weight
  32. How much blood is in each part of the circulatory system?
    • 80% systemic
    • 20% pulmonary
  33. What makes up blood?
    • 55% plasma
    • 45% RBCs
    • WBCs & platelets < 1%
  34. What is the Hct of blood?
    • 35-45% at rest
    • 50-70% during exercise
  35. How do you determine plasma volume?
    using Evans blue
  36. What is plasma volume at rest and during exercise?
    • 16-31 L at rest
    • 38-64 ml/Kg of body weight during exercise
  37. What makes up plasma?
    • 92% water
    • 6% protein

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