Auditing Principles - CH 16 - Auditing Operations & Completing the Audit

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  1. Auditing Operations
    • ØCorporate earnings are considered as an
    • extremely important indicator of health and well-being of corporations

    • ØMeasurement of income is generally
    • regarded as the single most important function of accounting
  2. Conservatism in the Measurement of Income
    • ØPowerful influence on revenue and
    • expenses

    • ØImportant because of subjectivity
    • involved with accounting estimates

    • ØAssets – accountants choose lower of two
    • or more reasonable alternative values

    ØLiabilities – higher amount is chosen

    • ØResults in income statement with a low or
    • conservative income figure
  3. Relationships Between Balance Sheet and Income Statement Accounts
    • Balance Sheet:
    • -AR
    • Revenue:
    • -Sales
    • Expense:
    • -Uncollectable Accounts

    • Balance Sheet:
    • -Notes Rec
    • Revenue:
    • -Interest
    • Expense:
    • -Uncollectable notes
  4. Misc. Revenue (1 of 2)
    • ØMixture of minor items, some nonrecurring
    • and others received at regular intervals

    • ØAuditor should analyze account to look
    • for items improperly recorded as miscellaneous:

    lCollections on previously written-off accounts or notes receivable

    lWrite-offs of old outstanding checks or unclaimed wages

    lProceeds from sales of scrap

    lRebates or refunds of insurance premiums

    lProceeds from sales of plant assets
  5. Misc. Revenue (2 of 2)
    ØAuditor should

    lPropose adjusting journal entry to classify items correctly

    lPerform analytical procedures and investigate unusual fluctuations

    • •Can detect material amounts of unrecorded
    • revenue and

    • •Significant misclassifications affecting
    • revenue
  6. Substantive Tests for Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (1 of 2)
    ØPerform analytical procedures

    • lDevelop an expectation of the account
    • balance

    • •Use budgeted amounts, prior-year audited balances, industry averages, relationships
    • among financial data and relevant nonfinancial data

    • lDetermine the amount of difference from
    • the expectation that can be accepted without investigation

    •Use estimates of materiality

    • lCompare the company’s account balance
    • with the expected account balance

    • lInvestigate significant deviations from
    • the expected account balance
  7. Substantive Tests for Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (2 of 2)
    ØObtain or prepare analyses of selected expense accounts

    • lExamine accounts based on results of
    • analytical procedures

    lWhich accounts? AICPA suggests


    •Research and development

    •Legal expenses and other professional fees

    •Maintenance and repairs

    •Rents and royalties

    ØObtain or prepare analyses of critical expenses in the income tax return
  8. Payrol
    • ØImportance – typically largest operating
    • cost

    • ØPayroll fraud had been common and often
    • substantial but now fraud difficult to conceal because of:

    lExtensive segregation of duties relating to payroll

    lUse of computers with proper controls for preparation of payrolls

    lFiling of frequent payroll reports to the government
  9. Segregation of Functions--Payroll
    Separate departments should handle: 

    •  Employment (personnel)

    •  Timekeeping

    •  Payroll preparation and record keeping

    •  Distribution of pay to employees
  10. Internal Control over Payroll Documentation
    ØTypical questions

    lAre employees paid by check or direct deposit?

    lIs a payroll bank account maintained on an imprest basis?

    • lAre the activities of timekeeping, payroll compilation, payroll check signing, and
    • paycheck distribution performed by separate departments or employees?

    lAre all operations involved in the preparation of payrolls subjected to independent verification before the paychecks are distributed?

    lAre employee time reports approved by supervisors?

    lIs the payroll bank account reconciled monthly by an employee having no other payroll duties?
  11. Audit Program for Payroll (1 of 2)
    Perform tests of controls over payroll transactions for selected pay periods, including the following specific procedures:

    a. Compare names and wage or salary rates to records maintained by the human resources department.

    b. Compare time shown on payroll to time cards and time reports approved by supervisors.

    c. If payroll is based on piecework rates rather than hourly rates, reconcile earnings with production records.

    d. Determine basis of deductions from payroll and compare with records of deductions authorized by employees.

    e. Test extensions and footings of payroll.
  12. Audit Program for Payroll (2 of 2)
    Perform tests of controls over payroll transactions for selected pay periods, including the following specific procedures (continued):

    • f. Compare total of payroll with total of payroll checks issued.
    • g. Compare total of payroll with total of labor cost summary prepared by cost accounting department.
    • h. If wages are paid in cash, compare receipts obtained from employees with payroll records.
    • i. If wages are paid by check, compare paid checks with payroll and compare endorsements to signatures on withholding tax exemption certificates.
    • j. If wages are paid by direct deposit, compare listing of employee payments with payroll and direct deposit authorizations.
    • k. Observe the use of time clocks by employees reporting for work and investigate time cards not used.
  13. Audit of Statement of Cash Flows
    • ØAmounts are audited in conjunction with
    • the audit of balance sheet and income statement accounts

    • ØPresentation and disclosure important
    • audit objective is important



  14. Audit Procedures Completed Near the End of Field Work
    ØSearch for unrecorded liabilities

    ØReview the minutes of meetings

    ØPerform final analytical procedures

    • ØPerform procedures to identify loss
    • contingencies

    ØPerform the review for subsequent events

    ØObtain the representation letter
  15. Loss Contingencies
    • ØLoss contingencies should be reflected in
    • the financial statement amounts when:

    lIt is probable that a loss had been sustained before the balance sheet date

    lThe amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated

    • ØLoss contingencies should be disclosed in
    • the notes to the financial statements when it is at least reasonably possible
    • that a loss has been sustained

    • ØLoss contingencies need not be disclosed
    • when the possibility of loss is remote
  16. Litigation
    • ØMost common loss contingency – pending or
    • threatened litigation

    lLetter of inquiry to client’s legal counsel

    • •Evidence of pending and threatened
    • litigation

    • •Unasserted claims 
    • - need to be disclosed if probable and reasonably possible

    lSAS 12

    • •Auditors should obtain from management a
    • list describing and evaluating threatened or pending litigation
  17. Other Contingencies
    ØIncome tax disputes

    • ØAccommodation endorsements and other
    • guarantees of indebtedness

    • ØAccounts receivable sold or assigned with
    • recourse

    ØEnvironmental issues


    ØGeneral risk contingencies
  18. Audit Procedures for Loss Contingencies
    1. Review the minutes of directors’ meetings to the date of completion of fieldwork.

    2. Send letter of inquiry to client’s lawyer

    3. Send confirmation letters to financial institutions to request information on contingent liabilities of the company.

    4. Review correspondence with financial institutions for evidence of accommodation endorsements, guarantees of indebtedness, or sales or assignments of accounts receivable.

    5. Review reports and correspondence from regulatory agencies to identify potential assessments or fines.

    6. Obtain a representation letter from the client indicating that all liabilities known to officers are recorded or disclosed.
  19. Procedures to Identify Subsequent Events
    • ØReview latest available financial
    • statements and minutes of the board and selected committees

    • ØInquiry about matters dealt with at
    • meetings for which minutes are not available

    ØInquiry of management

    ØObtain lawyer’s letter

    ØObtain representations from management
  20. Obtain Representation Letter
    • ØPurpose is to have the client’s principal
    • officers acknowledge that they are primarily responsible for the fairness of
    • the financial statements

    ØDated as of the date of the audit report

    • ØNot a substitute for application of
    • necessary audit procedures
  21. Misstatements
    ØKnown misstatements

    lSpecific misstatements identified during the course of the audit

    ØLikely misstatements

    lDue to extrapolation from audit evidence or differences in accounting estimates


    lMaterial misstatements must be corrected

    •Quantitative and qualitative factors
  22. Qualitative Materiality Factors
    Likely to be material when:
    • ØArise from an item capable of precise
    • measurement (e.g., the amount of a sale) rather than from an estimate (e.g.,
    • the amount in the allowance for doubtful accounts).

    • ØMask a change in earnings or other
    • trends.

    • ØHide a failure to meet analysts’
    • consensus expectations for the company.

    ØChange a loss into income, or vice versa.

    • ØConcern a particularly important segment
    • or other portion of the registrant’s business.

    • ØAffect compliance with regulatory
    • requirements, loan covenants, or other contractual requirements.

    ØIncrease management’s compensation.

    • ØInvolve concealment of an unlawful
    • transaction.

    • ØAre of an amount that management or the
    • auditors believe would affect the stock’s price.
  23. Review the Engagement
    • ØReview of work of audit staff
    • accomplished through review of audit working papers

    ØTypically performed by seniors

    • ØReview of working papers not completed
    • until near (of after) completion of fieldwork

    • ØPartner and manager devote attention to
    • accounts with higher risk of material misstatement

    • ØSecond partner review prior to issuance
    • of audit report
  24. Required Communication with Those Charged with Governance
    • ØAuditor responsibility under generally accepted auditing standards (e.g., to form and
    • express an opinion, and management’s responsibilities)

    ØAn overview of the planned scope and timing of the audit

    • ØSignificant findings from the audit
    • lQualitative aspects of accounting
    • practices

    lAudit difficulties encountered

    lUncorrected misstatements

    lDisagreements with management

    • lManagement consultations with other
    • accountants

    lAuditor independence issues

    lOther issues.
  25. Post-Audit Responsibilities
    • ØAuditor subsequent discovery of facts
    • existing at date of report

    • lAdvise client to make appropriate disclosure of the facts to anyone actually or likely
    • to be relying upon the audit report and financial statements

    lIf client refuses to make disclosure, CPA should inform each member of board and notify regulatory agencies
  26. Subsequent Discovery of Omitted Audit Procedures
    • ØDiscovered during peer review or other
    • subsequent review of working papers

    • ØAssess importance of omitted procedures
    • to their previously issued opinion

    • lIf omission impairs ability to support issued opinion and report being relied upon
    • by third parties, attempt to perform omitted procedure or appropriate alternative procedure
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Auditing Principles - CH 16 - Auditing Operations & Completing the Audit
2014-11-16 22:10:34
Auditing Principles 16 Operations Completing Audit

Auditing Principles - CH 16 - Auditing Operations & Completing the Audit
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