biochem 011 cell respiration part 1(glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC proton motive force ATP) #21

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biochem 011 cell respiration part 1(glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC proton motive force ATP) #21
2014-11-17 11:47:23
biochem 011 cell respiration part glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC proton motive force ATP 21
biochem 011 cell respiration part 1(glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC, proton motive force, ATP) #21
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  1. what is the difference between an open system, a closed system, and an isolated system?
    a closed system, which is selectively enclosed by walls through which energy but not matter can pass

    an open system, which both matter and energy can enter or exit, though it may have variously impermeable walls in parts of its boundaries.

    an isolated system is  a physical system so far removed from others that it does not interact with them
  2. glycolysis takes place where?
  3. what two molecules are made during glycolysis? (these two molecules will enter the citric acid cycle)
  4. how many ATPs do FADH2 and NADH produce?
    • NADH- 3 ATP
    • FADH2 - 2 ATP
  5. how many NADH are produced in glycolysis?
  6. once pyruvate enters the mitochondrion, what happens to it?
    as it enters the mitochondrion, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex converts it to acetyl CoA, releasing NADH as well (this conversion occurs during transport)
  7. what does phophoglycerate mutase do?
    it transfers a phosphate from 1 position to another on the same molecule
  8. which is more stable? pyruvate or glucose?
  9. if there is no oxygen in the cell, what occurs in terms of respiration?
    pyruvate builds up in the cell
  10. which step of the citric acid cycle is FADH2 formed?
    the conversion from succinate to fumerate
  11. what is digestion
    the process of breaking down large molecules of food
  12. true or false? complex II in the ETC doesn't shuttle Hydrogen ions directly
  13. FADH2 only feeds which complex of the ETC?
    complex II
  14. when glucose is oxidized, how much ATP is formed from oxidative phosphorylation out of the maximum amount of ATP molecules that are produced?
  15. cytochromes contain a(n) _____ atom
  16. what is chemiosmosis?
    the use of energy in a H+ gradient to drive cellular work
  17. what is the proton motive force?
    The H+ gradient is referred to as a proton-motive force, emphasizing its capacity to do work
  18. the electrons in the NADH take which path in the ETC?
    complex I, coenzyme Q, com. III, cytochrome c, com. IV
  19. what are the two types of fermentation?
    alcohol and lactic acid fermentation
  20. explain the steps of alcohol fermentation
    In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing CO2.

    • pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol

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