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What is pulmonary respiration?
occurs in the lungs
What is cellular respiration?
occurs in cells in the mitochondria
What is the function of the lungs?
to provide a means of gas exchange (oxygen and CO2) between the animal and its environment
What is ventilation?
the process of moving air into and out of the lungs (breathing)
What is the composition of air?
- Nitrogen 79%
- Oxygen 21%
- CO2 < 1%
What is the primary site of gas exchange?
What is tidal volume?
the amount of air moved during each breath
What does the larynx do?
- regulates size of airway
- keeps substances other than air out of the trachea
What does the pharynx do?
passageway for food and water
Whats the purpose of tracheal rings?
keep the trachea from collapsing
What is the purpose of the hilus?
where pulmonary vessels, lymphatics and nerves enter and leave the lungs
Why does air move down the alveoli?
due to a more-positive hydrostatic pressure gradient between the outside air and air passages in the lungs
What generates the pressure gradient in the lungs?
the expansion of the lungs
What does lung expansion do to the lungs?
increases the volume of air passages but reduces the amount of pressure in the lungs
What is Boyle's law?
the inverse relationship between volume and pressure of a gas
What are the inspiratory muscles?
In response to a respiratory disease, what happens to respiratory muscles?
the tissue can be compromised
What are some limitations to respiration?
- short nasals
- conformation issues
What controls breathing?
3 respiratory centers in the brain stem
pons & medulla oblongata control:
- intercostal muscles
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