Nutrition 8

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bobbie2013
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Nutrition 8
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2010-08-04 12:34:46
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NUTR 330
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  1. Which of the statements listed below is true?

    a) vitamins provide energy

    b) vitamins are organic substances found in food

    c) all vitamins must be supplied by the diet

    d) vitamins are strung together in complex structures
    b) vitamins are organic substances found in food
  2. Most vitamins are required daily in___________amounts

    a) gram

    b) kilogram

    c) milligram and microgram

    d) millimicrogram
    c) milligram and microgram
  3. Water-soluble vitamin

    a) are excreted in the feces when consumed in excessive amounts

    b) are generally immune to destruction by cooking and long storage of foods

    c) are stored in the liver and adipose tissue

    d) are less likely to produce symptoms of toxicity than are fat-soluble vitamins
    d) are less likely to produce symptoms of toxicity than are fat-soluble vitamins
  4. LIst the standard names of the water-soluble vitamins
    • -thiamin
    • -riboflavin
    • -niacin
    • -vitamin B-6
    • -folate
    • -vitamin B-12
    • -pantothenic acid
    • -biotin
    • -vitamin C
  5. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Bioavailability refers to the amount of a vitamin or minerals that a food contains
    False

    Bioavailability refers to the amount of a vitamin or mineral that the body actually absorbs and uses
  6. Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)

    a) is the enzyme required during oxidative decarboxylation

    b) is the coenzyme form of thiamin

    c) contains thiamin and three phosphate groups

    d) is the enzyme involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine
    b) is the coenzyme form of thiamin
  7. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Because atheletes engage in much vigourous exercise they require supplement of thiamin
    False

    Adequate thiamin may be obtained on a regular diet. provided the diet is adequate in energy and nutritious food
  8. Large doses of thiamin cause

    a) heart failure

    b) cancer

    c) nerve damage

    d) non of the above
    d) non of the above
  9. An early clinical sign of mild thiamin deficiency is

    a) loss of appetite

    b) paralysis

    c) edema

    d) heart failure
    a) loss of appetite
  10. Of the foods listed below,____________is the best source of thiamin

    a) one cup milk

    b) one-half cup white rice

    c) a 90 gram (three ounce) pork chop

    d) one-half cup raw spinach
    c) a 90 gram (three ounce) pork chop
  11. The food group that makes the most substantial contribution to daily thiamin intake is

    a) grain products

    b) vegetables and fruit

    c) milk products

    d) meat and alternatives
    a) grain products
  12. Of the procedures listed below,____________would have the greatest effect on the thiamin in food

    a) marinating pork in orange juice

    b) boiling rolled oats in water to make oatmeal

    c) adding baking soda to baked beans to speed up the cooking time

    d) cooking fish in a microwave oven
    c) adding baking soda to baked beans to speed up the cooking time
  13. The major function of FAD and FMN is as carriers if

    a) hyrdrogen atoms

    b) energy

    c) phosphate groups

    d) oxygen in the oxidation of nutrients
    a) hydrogen atoms
  14. Riboflavin deficiency

    a) has been eradicated in Canada as a result of the mandatory enrichment of cereals

    b) is often found in lacto-ovo vegetarians

    c) is a major nutritional problem to people who consume inadequate fruits and vegetables

    d) may be marginally present in people abusing alcohol
    d) may be marginally present in people abusing alcohol
  15. Riboflavin deficiency is clinically manifested by

    a) edema

    b) slow heart rate

    c) inflammation of mucous membranes

    d) muscular degeneration
    c) inflammation of mucous membranes
  16. Riboflavin is easily destroyed by

    a) heat

    b) oxygen

    c) water

    d) ultraviolet light
    d) ultraviolet light
  17. The food group making the most substantial contribution to daily riboflavin intake is

    a) grain products

    b) vegetables and fruit

    c) milk products

    d) meat and alternatives
    c) milk products
  18. The abbreviations for the two enzyme forms of niacin are _________and________
    • -NAD
    • -NADP
  19. Niacin is not recognized as

    a) a hydrogen carrier

    b) necessary for non-essential amino acid synthesis

    c) necessary for fatty acid synthesis

    d) necessary for hemoglobin synthesis
    d) necessart for hemoglobin synthesis
  20. Pellagra develops if diets

    a) are low in preformed niacin

    b) are low in leucine but high in tryptophan

    c) are low in tryptophan and performed niacin

    d) consist solely of wheat
    c) are low in tryptophan and performed niacin
  21. Niacin defiency affects primarily the

    a) skin and central nervous system

    b) hair and nails

    c) heart and kidneys

    d) reproductive ability
    a) skin and central nervous system
  22. A diet that contains one milligram of preformed niacin and 240 mg of excess tryptophan has_________niacin equivalents (NE)

    a) 241

    b) 5

    c) 2

    d) 1
    b) 5
  23. Large doses of niacin may have therapeutic value in

    a) treating schizophrenia

    b) helping people with learning disorders

    c) curing peptic ulcers

    d) lowering blood cholesterol levels
    d) lowering blood cholesterol levels
  24. The food group making the most substantial contribution to daily niacin intake is

    a) grain products

    b) vegetable and fruit

    c) milk products

    d) meat and alternatives
    d) meat and alternatives
  25. The primary role of vitamin B-6 is in

    a) energy metabolism

    b) fat metabolism

    c) carbohydrate metabolism

    d) protein metabolism
    d) protein metabolism
  26. The only specific symptom reflecting vitamin B-6 deficiency is

    a) irritability

    b) muscle weakness

    c) microcytic anemia

    d) insomnia
    c) microcytic anemia
  27. Of the foods listed below,___________is the best source of vitamin B-6

    a) one cup cooked corn

    b) one cup milk

    c) one cup cooked white rice

    d) a medium banana
    d) a medium banana
  28. Vitamin B-6 is not sensitive to

    a) carbon dioxide

    b) light

    c) extreme heat

    d) alkali
    a) cabon dioxide
  29. The abbreviation for the primary coenzyme form of folate is_________
    -THF
  30. Most of the folate present in foods is

    a) free folate

    b) tetrahydrofolate

    c) bound folate with a string of glutamate

    d) folate with one unit of glutamate
    b) tetrahydrofolate
  31. The main function of folate is as a carrier of

    a) hydrogen

    b) methyl groups

    c) oxygen

    d) nitrogen
    c) oxygen
  32. Symptoms of folate deficiency include

    a) dermatitis

    b) tingling in hands and feet

    c) macrocytic anemia

    d) microcytic anemia
    c) macrocytic anemia
  33. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    The behavioural changes of depression, mental confusion, and abnormal nerve reflexes are the result of irreversible nerve damage resulting from folate deficiency
    False

    These neurological symptoms are related to teh concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain and nervous system. They can be reversed once sufficient folate is available
  34. Folate is

    a) found in highest quantities in foods of animal origin

    b) very efficiently absorbed

    c) found in highest quantities in green, leafy plants

    d) stable to heat
    c) found in highest quantities in green, leafy plants
  35. During pregnancy, folate requirement is increased because

    a) the metabolic rate increases

    b) the fetus concentrates folate

    c) the efficiency of absorption is reduced

    d) cell division and cell growth are increased
    d) cell division and cell growth are increased
  36. Of the foods listed below,__________contains the most folate

    a) half a cup of cooked lentils

    b) three ounces of sirloin steak

    c) one cup of milk

    d) one medium baked potato
    a) half a cup of cooked lentils
  37. Vitamins B-12 does not function in

    a) production of the active coenzyme form of folate

    b) formation of myelin

    c) synthesis of DNA

    d) production of gastric hydrochloric acid
    d) production of gastric hydrochloric acid
  38. The intrinsic factor aids in vitamin B-12 absorption by

    a) releasing the vitamin from protein complexes in food

    b) attaching the vitamin to receptor sites on mucosal cells in the ileum

    c) attaching the vitamin to receptor sites in the colon

    d) stimulating hydrochloric acid to transport the vitamin to receptor sites on mucosal cells
    b) attaching the vitamin to receptor sites on mucosal cells in the ileum
  39. Inherited pernicious anemia can be prevented by

    a) injections of the intrinsic factor

    b) consuming liver once a week

    c) intramuscular injections of vitamin B-12

    d) oral supplements of vitamin B-12
    c) intramuscular injections of vitamin B-12
  40. Vitamin B-12 requirements can easily be met if

    a) foods of animal origin are consumed

    b) whole-grain breads and cereals are regularly consumed

    c) leafy, green vegetables are consumed

    d) one consumes foods that have been fermented by bacteria
    a) foods of animal origin are consumed
  41. Strict vegans may become deficient in vitamin B-12 because

    a) they lack the intrinsic factor

    b) they have a high excretion rate of vitamin B-12

    c) the form of vitamin B-12 in plants is poorly absorbed

    d) they do not eat animal products
    d) they do not eat animal products
  42. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Since folate and B-12 have similar roles in nerve functioning, high folate intakes can reverse the symptoms of peripheral nerve degeneration in vitamin B-12 deficiency
    False

    High intakes of folate can reverse the symptom of megaloblastic anemia in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but cannot reverse peripheral nerve degeneration. Unlike the insufficiency of neurotransmitters caused by of folate deficiency, irreversible nerve damage results from demyelination of nerve fibres during vitamin B-12 deficiency
  43. Vitamin C does not act as an antiooxidant by

    a) donating hydrogen atoms

    b) donating electrons

    c) acting as a reducing agent

    d) donating hydroxyl groups
    d) donating hydroxyl groups
  44. A structural protein that requires vitamin C for its formation is

    a) collagen

    b) hydroxyproline

    c) proline

    d) tryptophan
    a) collagen
  45. Vitamin C assists iron absorption by

    a) reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron

    b) reducing ferrous iron to ferric iron

    c) chelating with ferric iron to make it more soluble

    d) releasing the bound iron to a free form
    a) reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron
  46. An early sign of scurvy is

    a) degeneration of heart muscles

    b) hysteria

    c) pinpoint hemorrhages

    d) bleeding into body cavities
    c) pinpoint hemorrhages
  47. Wound healing may be impaired in an individual with vitamin C deficiency because

    a) there is a large amount of hydroproline

    b) there is a lack of proline

    c) thyroxin synthesis is impaired

    d) collagen synthesis is impaired
    d) collagen synthesis is impaired
  48. Of the functions listed below, only________is not a role of vitamin C in the body

    a) protecting tissues from oxidative stress

    b) acting as a cofactor in collagen formation

    c) aiding iron absorption

    d) aiding vitamin B-12 absorption
    d) aiding vitamin B-12 absorption
  49. A possible side effect of large intakes of vitamin C is

    a) anemia

    b) gout

    c) kidney stones

    d) pinpoint hemorrhaging of the skin
    c) kidney stones
  50. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Rebound scurvy is the re-occurence of vitamin C deficiency
    False

    Rebound scurvy occurs when high vitamin C intake is suddenly stopped. Since the body has been conditioned to a high intake of vitamin C, the normal intake in insufficient to prevent deficiency
  51. The RDA for vitamin C in cigarette smokers is higher because

    a) there is increased urinary excretion of vitamin C

    b) there is increased oxidative stress due to cigarette smoke

    c) there is impaired storage of vitamin C

    d) they often have poor dietary intake of vitamin C
    b) there is increased oxidative stress due to cigarette smoke
  52. Of the conditions listed below, only________would not result in an increased vitamin C requirement

    a) obesity

    b) smoking

    c) surgery

    d) severe emotional stress
    a) obesity
  53. Of the foods listed below, only____________is not a rich source of vitamin C

    a) one cup grapefruit juice

    b) one cup papaya

    c) a medium pear

    d) a medium kiwi
    c) a medium pear
  54. Of the foods listed below,___________would probably contain the most vitamin C

    a) steamed broccoli

    b) broccoli baked in cheese sauce

    c) microwave broccoli

    d) raw broccoli
    d) raw broccoli
  55. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Vitamin C does not prevent or cure the common cold, but it may shorten the duration of a cold to a small extent
  56. Vitamin C prevents the formation of a group of carcinogens called

    a) nitrates

    b) nitrites

    c) nitrosamines

    d) nitrogenous compounds

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