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pain in one area of a sensory distribution that is perceived by the brain as coming from another area
special sense receptors is not an epithelial cell?
olfactory (sense of smell)
taste has the lowest threshold?
Stages in the production of a sensation of a sound?
- sound waves cause the typanic membrane to vibrate which moves the malleus, then incus, then stapes
- the stapes vibrates the oval window which vibrates the fluid in the scala vestibull of the cochlea
- the vestibular membrane then vibrates causing the basilar membrane to vibrate.
- the inner hair cells, attached to the basilar membrane, are pushed up against the tectorial membrane.
- the hairs of the inner hair cells are bent, opening mechanically gated membrane channels, causing release of neurotransmitter onto the dendrites of the cochlear nerve.
three bones of the ear?
- malleus (tempatic)
- incus (bridge)
- stapes (oval window)
how are the membranes arranged in the inner ear?
- vestibular membrane separates the scala vestibuli from the cochlear duct
- the basilar membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani
what causes the sensation of movement?
vestibular hair cells move before the overlying otolithic membrane, bending the hairs of the hair cells, opening mechanically gated membrane channels, depolarizing the hair cells, releasing neurotransmitter onto dendrites of the vestibular nerve.
what causes red eyes?
dilation of the capillaries in the conjunctiva (thin outer coating, white of the eye)
describe refraction as applied to the eye.
incoming parallel light rays are bent by the cornea to focus on the retina at the mascula lutea
two reflexes of the pupil?
- pupillary light reflex
- consensual light reflex