Chapter 15 Lecture

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Chapter 15 Lecture
2014-11-17 00:18:59
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  1. In addition to a store of __, which is small, there is another store of __, which is __.
    • ATP
    • energy
    • creatine phosphate
  2. What is special about creatine phosphate?
    it contains a high phosphate bond that can be catalyzed by creatine kinase, which transfers the phosphate to ADP
  3. In metabolic pathways, everything is __. 

    Pathways can be __

    reversed to build molecules for pathways, synthesis and growth
  4. What is the universal energy source? 

    What does oxidation of fuel molecules or photosynthesis do?

    removes electrons from fuel molecules to power regeneration of production of ATP
  5. Briefly explain glycolysis.
    six carbon glucose is converted into two three carbon pyruvates

    the pathways are anaerobic [if there is insufficient oxygen (it is used to replenish electron carriers)] and aerobic [if there is enough oxygen]
  6. What is a special quality of ATP?
    it has high phosphoryl transfer potential, meaning it wnts to get rid of the gamma phosphate because its more stable with it cleaved
  7. Where does ATP lie in the table of transfer potential?
    it lies in the middle, which is perfect because, if too high, it'd be impossible to make. If it was too low, it'd have little potential to do work.
  8. What are the three reasons that ATP has this high phosphoryl transfer potential?
    1) resonance stabilization in the ADP + Pi form 

    2) repulsion: multiple negative charges that repel each other to get negative charges away from each other in ATP

    3) hydration: water can form a shell easily around ADP-P than ATP based on charge structure; more opportunities for H bonding
  9. How many stages to metabolism?

    Stage 1: glycolytic

    Stage II: forms acetyl coA; fats and proteins are fed at this stage

    Stage III: CAC and oxidative phosphorylation; if there's enough O2, then yes, continue to the CAC adn ETC; if not, you cannot pass stage one
  10. Explain the relationship between oxidation and usage of energy.
    • 1) gradient creted. 
    • Oxidation of puels pumps protons out

    2) Gradient used. Influx of protons forms ATP

    Electrons transfer energy, converting it to proton energy in the membrane. The ETC has protein complexes.
  11. All molecules in the process have __
    high electron transfer potential (wants to give up electrons)
  12. __ and __ can capture energy. The kinds are __, __, and __.
    coenzymes and cofactors

    • NAD+
    • NADP+
    • FAD+
  13. What can NAD+ do?
    it can accept two electrons and one proton

    • things usually give up 
    • 2 electrons and 2 protons
    • So, one is removed from the substrate
  14. FAD
    accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2