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In addition to a store of __, which is small, there is another store of __, which is __.
- creatine phosphate
What is special about creatine phosphate?
it contains a high phosphate bond that can be catalyzed by creatine kinase, which transfers the phosphate to ADP
In metabolic pathways, everything is __.
Pathways can be __
reversed to build molecules for pathways, synthesis and growth
What is the universal energy source?
What does oxidation of fuel molecules or photosynthesis do?
removes electrons from fuel molecules to power regeneration of production of ATP
Briefly explain glycolysis.
six carbon glucose is converted into two three carbon pyruvates
the pathways are anaerobic [if there is insufficient oxygen (it is used to replenish electron carriers)] and aerobic [if there is enough oxygen]
What is a special quality of ATP?
it has high phosphoryl transfer potential, meaning it wnts to get rid of the gamma phosphate because its more stable with it cleaved
Where does ATP lie in the table of transfer potential?
it lies in the middle, which is perfect because, if too high, it'd be impossible to make. If it was too low, it'd have little potential to do work.
What are the three reasons that ATP has this high phosphoryl transfer potential?
1) resonance stabilization in the ADP + Pi form
2) repulsion: multiple negative charges that repel each other to get negative charges away from each other in ATP
3) hydration: water can form a shell easily around ADP-P than ATP based on charge structure; more opportunities for H bonding
How many stages to metabolism?
Stage 1: glycolytic
Stage II: forms acetyl coA; fats and proteins are fed at this stage
Stage III: CAC and oxidative phosphorylation; if there's enough O2, then yes, continue to the CAC adn ETC; if not, you cannot pass stage one
Explain the relationship between oxidation and usage of energy.
- 1) gradient creted.
- Oxidation of puels pumps protons out
2) Gradient used. Influx of protons forms ATP
Electrons transfer energy, converting it to proton energy in the membrane. The ETC has protein complexes.
All molecules in the process have __
high electron transfer potential (wants to give up electrons)
__ and __ can capture energy. The kinds are __, __, and __.
What can NAD+ do?
it can accept two electrons and one proton
- things usually give up
- 2 electrons and 2 protons
- So, one is removed from the substrate
accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2