PT 132 Early Adulthood Part Une

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annalyze
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289451
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PT 132 Early Adulthood Part Une
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2014-11-17 08:22:07
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HUMAN
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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
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  1. FRAMES OF REFERENCE FOR ADULT DEVELOPMENT
    • Chronological Viewpoint
    • Biological Perspective
    • Cultural Perspective
    • Developmental Perspective
  2. Chronological Viewpoint
    • Adult development and behavior are explained in terms of a person’s
    • chronological age or “ calendar-year” age
  3. Chronological age is a poor way of measuring aging for the following reasons:
    • Individuals vary in their over-all rate of aging, each individual is
    • unique

    Aging is not a uniform process
  4. Biological Perspective
    • A biological view of adulthood and aging emphasizes physical changes in
    • the human body as the primary indicators of aging

    • A biological perspective is accurate in the sense that physical changes
    • occur throughout  the life span

    • The limitation of the biological perspective is that it does not take
    • into account other important factors in the development of adult; it is not comprehensive, it only looks
    • at the physical aspects (ex. worsening eyesight, etc.)
  5. Cultural Perspective
    Adulthood is a social and a cultural concept

    What it means to be an adult differs from one culture to another

    • Takes the cultural background of where an individual grew old into
    • account
  6. Developmental Perspective
    • This is viewed as a process of stages that could build on one another (not
    • only one step, but many)

    It is concerned with both biological and psychological changes

    It is a changing and growing process

    It involves the study of the individuals in the contexts of their lives
  7. ERIKSON’S STAGES OF ADULTHOOD
    • 1.   Intimacy vs. Isolation
    •       18 – 25 years old

    • 2.  Generativity vs. Stagnation
    •       25 – 65 years old
    •       Usually achieved through parenthood             and/or occupational achievements

    • 3.  Integrity vs. Despair
    •      65 yrs old and older
    •      The final stage of development and                involves the evaluation of one’s life
  8. BUHLER’S THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    • States that it is very important for us to know our self values; if we
    • don’t know what we value, we will never be fulfilled
  9. Most important feature of healthy-happy development
    Self-fulfillment
  10. involves the continual actualization of a lifelong orientation toward a goal or a set of goals/values
    Self--fulfillment
  11. BUHLER’S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT:
  12. “life structures”
    • Levinson's Theory
    • The personal meanings that individuals attach to their experiences in family, work, community, and friendship
  13. How do you give meaning to what you do?
    Levinson's Theory
  14. Levinson's Theory
    • "Life Structures"
    • Helps avoiding stagnation and being productive in later life
  15. Levinson's Theory
    Stages in Adult life:
    • 1.   Leaving the family
    • 2.  Getting into the adult world
    • 3.  The age-thirty transition
    • 4.  Settling down
    • 5.  Becoming one’s own
    • 6. The Deadline Decade
  16. Who are the young adults?
    early 20’s to middle or late 30’s
  17. The  period of young adulthood usually brings:
    • The beginning of a commitment to a career
    • The beginning of marriage
    • Sometimes the beginning of parenthood
  18. Peak of Physical Development
    19-26 years old
  19. Full height among males is reached at
    21.2 years (Roche and Davila 1972)
  20. Maximum Muscular Strength
    25-30 years old
  21. Physical decline starts at age
    30
  22. Vision and visual adaptation are sharpest at
    20 years of age
  23. Physical changes in young adults:
    There is a gradual decline in central nervous system functioning

    Skin is supple

    Most instances of disability, restricted activity, or death are primarily due to infectious diseases and accidents.

    • Between young adulthood and old age, there
    • is a gradual increase in reaction time
  24. PSYCHO-SOCIAL CHANGES IN YOUNG ADULT: EXTERNAL
    They are directed at the social world :

    • Beginning a family
    • Finding a job
    • Achieving an intimate relationship with a marital partner, children or other persons.
  25. PSYCHO-SOCIAL CHANGES IN YOUNG ADULT: INTERNAL
    • Identity and intimacy: Whatever was
    • achieved in adolescence is shared and tested in close relationships with significant others

    Physical status: The young adult is generally at the peak of physical prowess and health

    Intellectual and cognitive functioning is stable
  26. _______________________ provide the basis for continuing development in adulthood.
    Social relationships
  27. The young adult develops a ________ among friends, family members, and co-workers, which provide a _________________
    social network, social resource for continued development.
  28. STAGES IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD
    • 1. Achieving Stage ( Early Adulthood)
    •     - Apply intelligence to situations with profound consequences for achieving long-term goals
    •     - Ability to monitor own behavior

    • 2. Responsibility Stage: (Early Adulthood
    • to Middle Adulthood)
    •     - Attention given to the needs of others
    •     - Cognitive skills for career development, increase responsibility in job and community

    • 3. Executive Stage: (Middle Adulthood)
    •     - Responsible for societal systems and organizations
    •     - “Societal” as opposed to self-centered when younger
    •     - Take on high positions

    • 4. Reintegrative Stage: (Late Adulthood)
    •     - Older adults’ choosing to focus their energy on tasks with meaning to them
    •     - If they do not find meaning, depression might set in later in life
  29. CAREER DEVELOPMENT
    • Earning a living
    • Choosing an occupation
    • Establishing a career
    • Developing a career towards a second career
  30. GENERAL TRENDS IN THE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG ADULTS
    • - Gradual stabilization of the self-concept (“Who am I?”)
    • - Interpersonal flexibility: free from peer’s influence
    • - Deepening interests (When you come back to your interests after exploring different options, it’s with a DEEPER UNDERSTANDING)
    • - Humanization of values
    • - Expansion of caring: from adolescent egocentricity to welfare of others
  31. It is a task which arises at or about a certain period of life of the individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and success with later tasks, while
    failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval by society, and difficulty with later tasks.
    developmental task
  32. DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF EARLY ADULTHOOD:
    • Achieving autonomy
    • Molding identity
    • Developing emotional stability
    • Establishing and consolidating a career
    • Finding intimacy 
    • Becoming part of a community
    • Selecting a mate; adjusting to marriage
    • Establishing residence and learning to manage a home
    • Becoming a parent and rearing children
  33. ISSUES AND CONCERNS IN EARLY ADULTHOOD
    • Independence from parents
    • Choosing different options in life (basis of choosing: GOALS)
    • Marriage/family issues
    • Parenthood issues/ Managing a home
    • Work-related concerns
    • Professional development
    • Contributing to the development of a community
  34. EFFECTS OF ILLNESS AND DISABILITY IN ADULTHOOD
    • - Fear of dependency on parents
    • - Choices in career and mate would be limited (might not be able to explore the world to find new options)
    • - Limited opportunity to establish one’s career
    • - Having one’s own family might be sacrificed (might have to take care of one’s self; might WANT to only take care of one’s self)

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