Digestive Physiology

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Digestive Physiology
2014-11-17 14:03:34

animal anatomy
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  1. example of a non-ruminant herbivore:
  2. example of a non-ruminant herbivore; hind-gut fermenter:
  3. example of a non-ruminant carnivore:
    • cats
    • dogs
  4. example of a non-ruminant omnivore:
    • bears
    • pigs
  5. example of a ruminant herbivore:
    • goats
    • sheep
    • cattle
  6. the esophagus is typically longer in:
  7. what do carnivores lack?
    a cecum because they don't eat plants
  8. What is prehension?
    gathering of food and bringing it into the oral cavity
  9. What is mastication?
    • chewing
    • 1st step of digestion
    • can be enzymatic (saliva)
  10. What is deglutation?
    • the movement of food from the pharynx, down the esophagus and into the stomach
    • (swallowing)
  11. What is regurgitation?
    bringing food back up (ruminants)
  12. What are the 4 types of digestion?
    • fermentation
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • enzymatic
  13. fermentation digestion:
    done by microbes
  14. mechanical digestion:
    in avians
  15. chemical digestion:
    • pH
    • HCL in stomach
    • (acid)
  16. enzymatic digestion:
    • relies on enzymes to additionally break down nutrients
    • (pepsin; amylase)
  17. What is absorption?
    • the uptake of nutrients to the GI tract and onto other organs
    • last portion of digestion
  18. What is assimilation?
    the storage of excess nutrients in tissues
  19. What is egestion?
    removal of excess waste from the digestive system
  20. What are the primary glands for digestive secretions:
    • salivary
    • pancreas
    • liver
  21. What organs secrete substances to assist with digestion?
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  22. What is the purpose of digestion?
    take macronutrients from feed and break them down into micronutrients that the animal can use
  23. What can break down cellulose and lignin?
  24. What are the prehensile tools of animals?
    • teeth
    • lips
    • tongue
  25. brachydont
    • short and round incisors
    • found in ruminants
  26. hyspsodont
    • incisors and cheek teeth that are tall and constantly growing and erupting
    • found in horses
  27. Do ruminants have upper incisors?
    no they rely on their tongue, dental pad, and bottom incisors
  28. What produces saliva?
    • chewing motion
    • carnivores can be stimulated to salivate
  29. What is saliva made up of?
    • water
    • electrolytes
    • enzymes
    • buffering agent (bicarbonate)
  30. What is the primary enzyme of saliva?
    amylase (breaks down starch)
  31. How much amylase do animals have?
    • minimal in equine
    • non-existent in ruminants
    • large amounts in omnivores
  32. How much saliva do animals produce?
    depends on amount of chewing and what they eat
  33. Why is dental health important in herbivores?
    so food can be ground down enough for digestion in the stomach
  34. Where is the paratoid gland located?
    above the TMJ
  35. Where is the sublingual gland located?
    cranial to mandibular;under the tongue
  36. Where is the mandibular gland?
    adjacent to the parotoid gland
  37. What do ruminants rely on to break down their food?
    • a high pH 
    • buffering agents
    • not enzymes