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example of a non-ruminant herbivore:
example of a non-ruminant herbivore; hind-gut fermenter:
example of a non-ruminant carnivore:
example of a non-ruminant omnivore:
example of a ruminant herbivore:
the esophagus is typically longer in:
what do carnivores lack?
a cecum because they don't eat plants
What is prehension?
gathering of food and bringing it into the oral cavity
What is mastication?
- 1st step of digestion
- can be enzymatic (saliva)
What is deglutation?
- the movement of food from the pharynx, down the esophagus and into the stomach
What is regurgitation?
bringing food back up (ruminants)
What are the 4 types of digestion?
done by microbes
- relies on enzymes to additionally break down nutrients
- (pepsin; amylase)
What is absorption?
- the uptake of nutrients to the GI tract and onto other organs
- last portion of digestion
What is assimilation?
the storage of excess nutrients in tissues
What is egestion?
removal of excess waste from the digestive system
What are the primary glands for digestive secretions:
What organs secrete substances to assist with digestion?
- small intestine
- large intestine
What is the purpose of digestion?
take macronutrients from feed and break them down into micronutrients that the animal can use
What can break down cellulose and lignin?
What are the prehensile tools of animals?
- short and round incisors
- found in ruminants
- incisors and cheek teeth that are tall and constantly growing and erupting
- found in horses
Do ruminants have upper incisors?
no they rely on their tongue, dental pad, and bottom incisors
What produces saliva?
- chewing motion
- carnivores can be stimulated to salivate
What is saliva made up of?
- buffering agent (bicarbonate)
What is the primary enzyme of saliva?
amylase (breaks down starch)
How much amylase do animals have?
- minimal in equine
- non-existent in ruminants
- large amounts in omnivores
How much saliva do animals produce?
depends on amount of chewing and what they eat
Why is dental health important in herbivores?
so food can be ground down enough for digestion in the stomach
Where is the paratoid gland located?
above the TMJ
Where is the sublingual gland located?
cranial to mandibular;under the tongue
Where is the mandibular gland?
adjacent to the parotoid gland
What do ruminants rely on to break down their food?
- a high pH
- buffering agents
- not enzymes
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