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What is the purpose of the reticular groove in ruminants?
allows milk to skip the rumen in younger animals
What makes up the foregut in ruminants?
What is the purpose of the rumen?
large fermentation vat
What are the main by-products of cellulose?
volatile fatty acids
Where are nutrients absorbed in ruminants?
in rumen walls & into the blood stream
How often do ruminants ruminate food?
- about 8 hours per day
- usually lay down
What is the ruminant esophagus made up of?
striated muscles due to regurgitation
What is cellulose content broken down into in the rumen?
- volatile fatty acids
- vitamin K and B-complex
- microbial protein
What volatile fatty acids are produced from microbes?
What is the purpose of the capillary system around the rumen?
absorb nutrients into bloodstream
What is the purpose of the reticulum?
- move ingested feed into the rumen or omasum
- stimulates regurgitation of ingesta
What does proprionate do?
makes glucose for ruminants in the liver
What is the purpose of the omasum?
- reduces feed particle size before moving it into the abomasum
- removes liquid from the food
What is the purpose of the abomasum?
- secretes digestive juices to finish breaking down the feed
- glandular portion of the ruminant digestive system
What is the true stomach in ruminants?
What are ruminant intestines made up of?
glands that secrete enzymes and HCL
What is the importance of bile in non-ruminants?
instrumental in fatty acid absorption in the small intestine
What organ secretes hormones to aid in non-ruminant digestion?
What are the 3 sections of the non-ruminant small intestine?
lipase is secreted by:
Where are bile salts found?
- secreted by the liver
- stored in the gall bladder
What is the purpose of the stomach?
primary glandular portion that breaks down food
What are the parts of the large intestine?
What occurs in the non-ruminant stomach?
- start of protein digestion
- minor microbial fermentation
- quick rate of passage (15-25 minutes)
What occurs in the small intestine of non-ruminants?
- enzymatic digestion
- primary site of nutrient absorption
- (60-90 minute rate of passage, depending on feed)
the pancreas releases:
pepsin (breaks down proteins)
amylase breaks down:
the liver (gall bladder) releases:
lipase (breaks down fats/lipids needed for absorption)
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
- secretes insulin (feeding) and glucagon (fasting)
- regulates blood sugar
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
secretes enzymes and mucous
What does protase do?
breaks down proteins into amino acids
What stimulates the activation of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
What is the purpose of the cecum?
- fermentation vat
- similar to rumen
- high microbe population
- break down cellulose of plants
What do microbes produce?
- Volatile fatty acids (methane)
- water-soluble vitamins (K & B)
What is broken down by microbial fermentation?
- mostly fiber
- excess starch that hasn't been absorbed
- excess protein
What is the purpose of the large colon?
- absorption of volatile fatty acids and B-vitamins
- primary water reabsorption
What is the purpose of the small colon?
- secondary water reabsorption
- electrolyte absorption
- development of manure/feces
What is digestive motility?
how things move down the digestive system
What drives digestive motility?
the parasympathetic portion of the ANS
How is food moved down the digestive tract?
- cranial side contracts
- caudal side relaxes
- mixing of the bolus occurs at this time
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