What are the four allied technical support departments in most healthcare facilities that were reviewed in class?
Match the following agencies with the descriptions below:
A) Underwriters Laboratories UL
B) U.S. Food and Drug Administration FDA
C) Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation AAMI
D) National Fire Protection Association NFPA
E) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA
F) Joint Commission for Accreditation of Hospital Organizations JCAHO
_______ federal law that protects patient privacy
_______ an NRTL in the U.S.
_______ agency that inspects and certifies hospitals and clinics
_______ agency that regulates cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, etc.
_______ organization that sets standards for medical equipment, and certifies biomeds
This icon is found on the back of a medical device:
What kind of agency does this symbol indicate, and what does it mean to us?
Which of the following would NOT be a violation of the HIPAA law?
A) Telling your colleagues at coffee break that you just saw the mayor in a treatment room in the Outpatient Clinic.
B) Mentioning to your kids that a teacher they know is in your hospital with colon cancer.
C) Entering a patient’s name, height, and weight into a monitor.
D) Asking about the condition of a fellow employee who is being evaluated in the Emergency Department with chest pains.
Why are silver and silver chloride used in an ECG electrode?
Match the following types of electrodes with their typical application:
A) Needle electrode
B) Skin surface electrode
C) Cup electrode
Match the following characteristics of sensors with the descriptions below:
C) Repeatability (or Precision)
D) Frequency Response
how close the output is to the true value
how consistent the output values are
the smallest step of useful or meaningful output
output change divided by input change
A) is a semiconductor device that has a linear temperature curve
B) is a resistive device that has a linear temperature curve
C) is a semiconductor device that has a non-linear temperature curve
D) is a resistive device that has a non-linear temperature curve
At any specific temperature, a thermocouple
A) has a specific resistance
B) creates a specific current flow
C) has a specific capacitance
D) creates a specific voltage
In the diagram below, why are there two strain gauges in this pressure transducer, and why is one oriented at a right angle to the other?
What is this type of circuit?
What are two advantages of this circuit in medical equipment?
Label what the heart is doing at P, QRS, and T on this ECG waveform:
Fill-in the colors for these ECG electrodes (assume AAMI standard colors).
Right Arm _______________
Left Arm _______________
Right Leg _______________
Left Leg _______________
What is the standard paper speed of an ECG recorder (or the sweep speed of the ECG on a patient monitor)?
A) 25 cm/sec
B) 25 mm/sec
C) 50 cm/sec
D) 50 mm/sec
What is the standard calibration signal for ECG monitors or recorders ?
A) 1 mV to deflect the waveform 10 cm
B) 10 mV to deflect the waveform 1 cm
C) 1 mV to deflect the waveform 1 cm
D) 1 μV to deflect the waveform 10 cm
Name the ECG Lead for the following electrode pairs:
LA and LL
RA and LL
RA and LA
(LA + LL) and RA
(RA + LA + LL) and chest electrode right of the sternum
A nurse complains that she can only get Lead I on a patient’s ECG monitor, using a basic 3-electrode cable. What would you suspect is the problem?
In the ECG sample below, what two interferences do you see, and what are their possible causes?
Respiratory rate can be monitored through the ECG circuitry by:
A) the amplitude of the T-wave
B) the impedance across two electrodes
C) the amplitude of the R-wave
D) the capacitance across the chest electrodes
“S-T segment analysis” is an option added to ECG monitors to enable clinicians to identify which of these conditions?
A) mitral valve failure
B) 60 Hz interference
C) myocardial ischemia D) heartburn
In terms of peak voltage and total energy delivered, what is the difference between monophasic defibrillators and biphasic defibrillators?
Which type of pacemaker delivers a pulse only when it detects a skipped heartbeat?
C) AV synchronized
A defibrillator can be used for cardioversion by giving a pulse where on the ECG?
A) 200 mSec after the P-wave
B) between the P-wave and the R-wave
C) on the T-wave
D) between the R-wave and the T-wave
For the technician, what are the two maintenance items for Automatic External Defibrillators?
What are two advantages and disadvantages of a switching power supply compared to a linear power supply?
In the power supply below:
What are the two output voltages?
What is the purpose of the two large capacitors?
Match the following cell types with their cell voltages:
A) 1.2 V ______ lead-acid
B) 1.5 V ______ lithium
C) 2.0 V ______ alkaline
D) 3.0 V ______ NiMH
Match the following battery parameters with
A) cell voltage
B) battery capacity
C) energy density
D) load current
_____ watt-hours per kilogram
_____ the default voltage of a cell, under load
_____ ampere-hours (A-H)
_____ output current under a load
Which of the following is a primary cell (ie has “irreversible chemistry”) ?
What are the following maximum limits set by the NFPA 99 standard for electrical safety? (include the units):
Resistance of the protective ground wire:
With the ground closed:
Leakage from Chassis:
Leakage from any single ECG lead wire:
Leakage from all ECG lead wires grouped:
What is the meaning of these icons on the back of a medical device?
When safety checking a medical device, you find that it has excessively high leakage current.
What would you do to be able to use it for patient care, until it can be repaired?
Why are long extension cords, even if medical grade, discouraged in the patient care vicinity?
What are three times when an electrical safety check should be performed on a medical device?
waveform A is a normal invasive blood pressure signal
What is the cause of the non-ideal waveforms in B and C?
Which three of these pressures can be obtained by a Swan-Ganz catheter?
A) pulmonary arterial pressure
B) intracranial pressure
C) mean arterial pressure
D) central venous pressure
E) wedge pressure
F) systolic aortic pressure
Korotkoff sounds will be detected in
A) the oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure
B) the invasive method of measuring blood pressure
C) Doppler Shift method of measuring blood pressure
D) the auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure
In the circuit of a non-invasive blood pressure monitor below:
What is “B1” on the NIBP board?
What does the Bleed Valve do?
What does the Exhaust Valve do?
What does the Safety Valve do?
An automated BP monitor attempts a blood pressure determination 3 times, then deflates the cuff and alarms.
What is most likely the problem?
What would you check?
In oscillometric BP measurements, the pressure in the cuff when the arterial pulse reaches its maximum amplitude is displayed as the: