Ch.1 and 2 Chem.
Card Set Information
Ch.1 and 2 Chem.
the scientific study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
Branches of chemistry
Organic chemistry, Biochemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Physical chemistry, Analytical chemistry, Theoretical chemistry
any substance that has a definite composition.
Research can be categorized as
basic, applied, or related to technological development.
anything that has mass and takes up space.
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
a substance that is made of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
property depends on the amount of matter that is present.
property does not depend on the amount of matter present.
has definite volume and definite shape.
has a definite volume but not a definite shape.
does not have a definite volume or shape.
the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apart.
conduct electric current, affected by electric and magnetic fields
In the gaseous state at high temperatures, alkali metals become ______.
Scientists estimate that more than __ percent of the known matter in the universe, including the sun and other stars, is made of plasma.
a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
is a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions.
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
The study of most carbon-containing compounds
the study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics)
The study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
The identification of the components and composition of materials
The study of substances and processes occurring in living things
The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
Research that is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
Research that is generally carried out to solve a problem
This typically involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life.
A measure of the amount of matter
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
A physical change of a substance from one state to another
change of state
A high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms
Relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
Chemical change/ reaction
Substances that react in a chemical change
Substances that are formed by the chemical change
A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
A mixture with a uniformed composition
homogeneous mixture; solution
A mixture without a uniformed composition
List the characteristics of a pure substance
-Has a fixed composition
-Every sample given has exactly the same characteristic properties
-Every sample of a given has exactly the same composition
-It is homogeneous
Elements are organized into groups based on similar chemical properties in a _____ _____.
The vertical columns in a periodic table
The horizontal rows in a periodic table
What do elements in the same group, families, have in common?
What do elements in the same periods have in common?
Elements that are close together share similar chemical and physical properties
A logical approach to solving problems that lend themselves to investigation
A testable statement that serves as the basis for predictions and further experiments
A broad generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena
A specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
An explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related or a physical object
The result of nearly every measurement is a ____ and a _____.
number and a unit
The ____ ____ of measurement is used in science.
Name the four base units in SI system of measurements
A measure of gravitational pull on matter
The ratio of mass to volume
Used to convert from one unit to another
Something that has magnitude, size, or amount
The amount of space occupied by an object
A mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements
Refers to the closeness of a measurement to the correct or accepted value
Refers to the closeness of values for a set of measurements
the difference between the experimental and the accepted value that is divided by the accepted value and then multiplied by 100
Completely certain and do not limit the number of digits in a calculation
exact conversion factor
two quantities that if divided on by the other it will yield a constant value
two quantities that if multiplied their product will have a constant value