Module II, Unit F

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  1. What is asphyxiation?
    What are common causes?
    Air not reaching lungs causing breathing to stop

    • Drowning in children
    • Choking on foreign objects inhaled into trachea
    • Gas, smoke posioning
    • Infants suffocating on a pillow
  2. 80% of fire deaths occur in the ______

    80% of homicide victims between 10-24 years old are by ________

  3. What are the different types of poisonings?

    What is the most common?
    • Ocular (Eyes)
    • Dermal (Plants)
    • Inhalation (Carbon monoxide)
    • Parental (IV)
    • Venom (Snakes, etc.)
    • Ingestion (Mouth)

    Most common is thru ingestion
  4. The most common age groups for deaths from poisoning are?

    How are they differentiated?
    • 50% are from children under age of 6
    • Cause is usually accidental

    • Majority are from teens
    • Cause is deliberate ingestion
  5. What questions should you ask the patient / parent of patient that seeks treatment for poisoning?
    • What was ingested?
    • How much?
    • Time of ingestion
    • What treatments when tried at home
    • Any change in conditions since?
  6. What is activated charcoal?
    • Used for positioning
    • Binds to toxin, preventing absorption
    • Causes severe constipation

    • Given in covered container (black color)
    • Add cherry concentrate to it (it tastes awful)
    • Give stool softener with it
  7. What are the symptoms of lead poisoning?
    • Fatgiue
    • Confusion
    • Clumbsy
    • Seizures
    • Anorexia
    • Abdominal Pain
    • Lead encephalitis
    • Neuro-behavioral defects

    • Anemia
    • Lead can be seen in long bones
    • Lead lines in gum line
  8. Who is at high risk of lead poisoning?
    • Toddlers living in a home built before 1960s
    • Crawl around, putting fingers into mouth

    • Plumbers
    • Anyone renovating an old home

    Glass Blowers
  9. Lead deposits itself where in the body?
    Blood, bone, soft tissue
  10. What are the lead levels (normal & not) for humans?
    Less than 10 mcg / dL (not harmful)

    10-15 mcg / dL (requires frequent screening)

    • 15-20 mcg / dL
    • Requires nutritional interventions & investigation
  11. Restraints are
    Anything (physical or chemical) used to limit a patient's movement
  12. The acronym RACE is used for what?

    What does it stand for?
    Fire safety procedures

    Rescue, Activate, Contain, Evacuate
  13. What are the most common causes of a fire

    in the home
    in the hospital
    • In the Home
    • Smoking
    • Grease Fires
    • Faulty, not to code electrical work

    • In the Hospital
    • Careless smoking
    • Faulty eletrical
    • Combustion from anesthetic agents
    • Candles
  14. Children / Elder Abuse vs Neglect

    Another Name for it?
    Which is more common?
    • Abuse is an Act of Comission
    • Neglect is an Act of Omission

    Neglect is more common
  15. What are examples of abuse & neglect in children & elderly
    • Children Abuse
    • Physical or emotional mistreatment treatment
    • Highest occurrence is from birth to age 3

    • Elderly
    • Abuse usually involves finances

    • Examples of Neglect (Both Age Groups)
    • Poor hygiene
    • Inadequate nutrition
    • Untreated injuries
    • Lack of assisting in care needs
  16. Infection
    Disease state resulting from presence of a pathogen
  17. Pathogen
    A disease producing micro organism
  18. Infectious Agent
    Any bacteria, virus, fungi that can cause infection
  19. Reservoir (In terms of Infection)

    Name some examples
    A natural habitat of the organism (that causes infection)

    • Humans
    • Animals (mosquitoes, ticks)
    • Food (undercooked meat)
    • Water (cholera)
    • Milk (listeria)
    • Inanimate Objects aka Fomites
  20. Portal of Exit from Reservoir

    Name some common examples
    • The point of escape for an organism from the reservoir
    • Organism needs to move away from original reservoir to spread

    • Respiratory
    • GI
    • Breaks in Skin
    • Blood, Tissue
  21. Means of Transmission (In terns of Infection)
    How the organism enters the body

    Can be direct (Kissing, intercourse) or indirect (Fomites)
  22. Vectors (In terms of Infection)

    Name some examples
    Carriers that transmit organism from one host to another

    • Mosquitoes, lice, ticks
    • A sex worker (STDs)
  23. Portals of Entry (In terms of Infection)

    List examples
    Where organism enters a new host

    Similar to exit route

    • Urinary
    • Respiratory
    • GI
    • Broken Skin
  24. Susceptible Host
    A potential reservoir for an infectious agent

    Microorganisms can only be accepted if it is able to overcome the host's resistences

    Hospital patients are in a weakened state thus vulnerable
  25. Asepsis

    Medical vs Surgical
    • Activities that
    • Prevent infection
    • Break the chain of infection

    • Medical Asepsis aka Clean Technique
    • Reduces number of pathogens & its transfer

    • Surgical Asepsis aka Sterile Technique
    • Keep objects & area free from microorganisms
  26. Who is at highest risk for infections?
    • The Young
    • The Old
    • Those in poor heath
    • Those with poor nutrition
    • The highly stressed
    • Patients with invasive medical devices (foley caths)
  27. A hospital acquired infection is also called
    Nosocomial Infection

    Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI)
  28. Blueish color of skin due to lack of oxygenation
  29. Escape of blood into tissues from ruptured blood vessels

    It looks like a bruise, but isn't one because it was not caused by trauma
  30. Endogenous (Infection) vs Exogenous (Infection)
    • Endogenous
    • Infection from which the causative organism came from the person he/her self harbors

    • Exogenous
    • Infection from which the causative organism is acquired from outside the host
  31. An infection that occurs as result of a treatment or diagnostic procedure
    Iatrogenic Infection
  32. Isolation
    Protective procedure designed to prevent transmission of specific microorganisms
  33. What is flora?
    What is another name for it?
    What are the different types?
    Collective bacterial & other microorganisms that reside in a host

    Aka Microbiome

    • Normal Flora
    • Normally inhabit various body sites
    • Are part of body's natural defense system

    • Resident Flora
    • Life-long members of body's normal microbial community
    • Not found everywhere
    • Do not cause harm to host
    • Sometimes feed on cellular waste of host

    • Typically colonize
    • Surface of skin
    • Mucous membranes
    • GI tract
    • Upper respiratory

    • Transient Flora
    • Just passing thru
    • Unable to remain in body for long time
    • Unable to compute with resident microbes
    • Are eliminated by body's immune system
    • Physical or chemical changes within body discourage its growth
  34. Low urine output
  35. Average urine output in 24 hours is
    100-400 mL
  36. Sepsis
    Life threatening complication of an infection

    Chemicals released into bloodstream to fight infection trigger inflammatory responses throughout the body

    This inflammation causes changes that damage organ systems
Card Set:
Module II, Unit F
2014-11-18 20:25:58
Safety Security

Safety of Patient in Home, Hospital
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