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What is asphyxiation?
What are common causes?
Air not reaching lungs causing breathing to stop
- Drowning in children
- Choking on foreign objects inhaled into trachea
- Gas, smoke posioning
- Infants suffocating on a pillow
80% of fire deaths occur in the ______
80% of homicide victims between 10-24 years old are by ________
What are the different types of poisonings?
What is the most common?
- Ocular (Eyes)
- Dermal (Plants)
- Inhalation (Carbon monoxide)
- Parental (IV)
- Venom (Snakes, etc.)
- Ingestion (Mouth)
Most common is thru ingestion
The most common age groups for deaths from poisoning are?
How are they differentiated?
- 50% are from children under age of 6
- Cause is usually accidental
- Majority are from teens
- Cause is deliberate ingestion
What questions should you ask the patient / parent of patient that seeks treatment for poisoning?
- What was ingested?
- How much?
- Time of ingestion
- What treatments when tried at home
- Any change in conditions since?
What is activated charcoal?
- Used for positioning
- Binds to toxin, preventing absorption
- Causes severe constipation
- Given in covered container (black color)
- Add cherry concentrate to it (it tastes awful)
- Give stool softener with it
What are the symptoms of lead poisoning?
- Abdominal Pain
- Lead encephalitis
- Neuro-behavioral defects
- Lead can be seen in long bones
- Lead lines in gum line
Who is at high risk of lead poisoning?
- Toddlers living in a home built before 1960s
- Crawl around, putting fingers into mouth
- Anyone renovating an old home
Lead deposits itself where in the body?
Blood, bone, soft tissue
What are the lead levels (normal & not) for humans?
Less than 10 mcg / dL (not harmful)
10-15 mcg / dL (requires frequent screening)
- 15-20 mcg / dL
- Requires nutritional interventions & investigation
Anything (physical or chemical) used to limit a patient's movement
The acronym RACE is used for what?
What does it stand for?
Fire safety procedures
Rescue, Activate, Contain, Evacuate
What are the most common causes of a fire
in the home
in the hospital
- In the Home
- Grease Fires
- Faulty, not to code electrical work
- In the Hospital
- Careless smoking
- Faulty eletrical
- Combustion from anesthetic agents
Children / Elder Abuse vs Neglect
Another Name for it?
Which is more common?
- Abuse is an Act of Comission
- Neglect is an Act of Omission
Neglect is more common
What are examples of abuse & neglect in children & elderly
- Children Abuse
- Physical or emotional mistreatment treatment
- Highest occurrence is from birth to age 3
- Abuse usually involves finances
- Examples of Neglect (Both Age Groups)
- Poor hygiene
- Inadequate nutrition
- Untreated injuries
- Lack of assisting in care needs
Disease state resulting from presence of a pathogen
A disease producing micro organism
Any bacteria, virus, fungi that can cause infection
Reservoir (In terms of Infection)
Name some examples
A natural habitat of the organism (that causes infection)
- Animals (mosquitoes, ticks)
- Food (undercooked meat)
- Water (cholera)
- Milk (listeria)
- Inanimate Objects aka Fomites
Portal of Exit from Reservoir
Name some common examples
- The point of escape for an organism from the reservoir
- Organism needs to move away from original reservoir to spread
- Breaks in Skin
- Blood, Tissue
Means of Transmission (In terns of Infection)
How the organism enters the body
Can be direct (Kissing, intercourse) or indirect (Fomites)
Vectors (In terms of Infection)
Name some examples
Carriers that transmit organism from one host to another
- Mosquitoes, lice, ticks
- A sex worker (STDs)
Portals of Entry (In terms of Infection)
Where organism enters a new host
Similar to exit route
- Broken Skin
A potential reservoir for an infectious agent
Microorganisms can only be accepted if it is able to overcome the host's resistences
Hospital patients are in a weakened state thus vulnerable
Medical vs Surgical
- Activities that
- Prevent infection
- Break the chain of infection
- Medical Asepsis aka Clean Technique
- Reduces number of pathogens & its transfer
- Surgical Asepsis aka Sterile Technique
- Keep objects & area free from microorganisms
Who is at highest risk for infections?
- The Young
- The Old
- Those in poor heath
- Those with poor nutrition
- The highly stressed
- Patients with invasive medical devices (foley caths)
A hospital acquired infection is also called
Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI)
Blueish color of skin due to lack of oxygenation
Escape of blood into tissues from ruptured blood vessels
It looks like a bruise, but isn't one because it was not caused by trauma
Endogenous (Infection) vs Exogenous (Infection)
- Infection from which the causative organism came from the person he/her self harbors
- Infection from which the causative organism is acquired from outside the host
An infection that occurs as result of a treatment or diagnostic procedure
Protective procedure designed to prevent transmission of specific microorganisms
What is flora?
What is another name for it?
What are the different types?
Collective bacterial & other microorganisms that reside in a host
- Normal Flora
- Normally inhabit various body sites
- Are part of body's natural defense system
- Resident Flora
- Life-long members of body's normal microbial community
- Not found everywhere
- Do not cause harm to host
- Sometimes feed on cellular waste of host
- Typically colonize
- Surface of skin
- Mucous membranes
- GI tract
- Upper respiratory
- Transient Flora
- Just passing thru
- Unable to remain in body for long time
- Unable to compute with resident microbes
- Are eliminated by body's immune system
- Physical or chemical changes within body discourage its growth
Low urine output
Average urine output in 24 hours is
Life threatening complication of an infection
Chemicals released into bloodstream to fight infection trigger inflammatory responses throughout the body
This inflammation causes changes that damage organ systems