Chemistry Test 5

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Chemistry Test 5
2014-11-18 23:49:53

Chemistry test 5
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  1. hydrogen bonding
    Opposite ends of water molecules attract one another. It is what gives water such a high boiling point.
  2. Crystal lattice
    crystals of ionic compounds that contain an orderly 3-D arrangement of positive and negative ions
  3. Why are some things insoluble in water?
    Because the pull of the water molecules is not strong enough to overcome the attractions among ions in the crystal lattice.
  4. Why are some things soluble in water?
    Because the pull of molecules is strong enough to overcome the attractions among the ions and will start to pull the crystal apart.
  5. Strong electrolytes
    • Dissociate in water, producing positive and negative ions
    • conduct an electric current in water
    • in equations show the formation of ions in aqueous solutions
  6. Weak electrolytes
    • dissociates only slightly in water
    • in water forms a solution of a few ions and mostly undissociated molecules
    • associated with the equilibrium sign
  7. Nonelectrolytes
    • dissolve as molecules in water
    • do not produce ions in water
    • form solutions that do not conduct electric current
  8. Metathesis reaction
    • AKA double replacement reactions
    • involve a trading of ion partners
    • are driven by A) the formation of precipitates B) the formation of a molecular liquid or C) the formation of a molecular gas
  9. Precipitation reactions
    Metathesis reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble solid
  10. Solubility
    A physical property describing how readily a substance will dissolve in a given solvent
  11. Molecular equation
    When ionic compounds are shown with cations and anions together to form neutral units in a chemical equation
  12. Ionic equation
    • AKA total ionic equation or complete ionic equation
    • Show soluble ionic compounds and strong acids separated into the ions that they contain
  13. Spectator ions
    • Ions that do not change in a reaction
    • In net ionic equations, the spectator ions are removed
  14. Arrhenius acids
    • Produce H+ ions in water
    • are electrolytes
    • have a sour taste
    • turn litmus red
    • neutralize bases
    • corrosive to metals and skin
  15. 7 Strong Acids by name
    • hydrochloric acid
    • hydrobromic acid
    • hydroiodic acid
    • nitric acid
    • sulfuric acid
    • perchloric acid
    • chloric acid
  16. Formula for hydrochloric acid
  17. Formula for hydrobromic acid
  18. Formula for hyroiodic acid
  19. Formula for nitric acid
  20. Formula for sulfuric acid
  21. Formula for perchloric acid
  22. Formula for chloric acid
  23. Arrhenius bases
    • Produce OH- ions in water
    • taste bitter or chalky
    • are electrolytes
    • feel soapy or slippery
    • neutralize acids
    • caustic (corrosive)
  24. 8 Strong Bases by name
    • Lithium hydroxide
    • Sodium hydroxide
    • Potassium hydroxide
    • Rubidium hydroxide
    • Cesium hydroxide
    • Calcium hydroxide
    • Strontium hydroxide
    • Barium hydroxide
  25. Lithium hydroxide
  26. Sodium hydroxide
  27. Potassium hydroxide
  28. Rubidium hydroxide
  29. Cesium hydroxide
  30. Calcium hydroxide
  31. Strontium hydroxide
  32. Barium hydroxide
  33. Salt
    Any ionic compound that is not a hydroxide or oxide, produced when acids and bases neutralize each other
  34. Oxidation reactions
    • AKA redox reactions
    • involve a transfer of electrons
  35. Oxidation numbers
    • AKA oxidation state
    • numbers assigned to atoms to help keep track of electrons lost or gained during a redox reaction
  36. Oxidation
    Increase in oxidation number or loss of electrons
  37. Reduction
    Reduction in oxidation number or gain of electrons
  38. Oxidising agent or oxidant
    the reactant that causes another reactant to be oxidized; steals electrons; oxidants get reduced in the reaction
  39. Reducing agent or reductant
    the reactant that causes another reactant to be reduced; gives away electrons; reductants get oxidized in the reaction
  40. Solubility
    • the maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a specific amount of solvent
    • expressed as grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent
    • of most solids, increases as temperature increases
    • of most gases, decreases as temperature increases
  41. Concentration of a solution
    • Amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solution.
    • amount of solute/amount of solution
  42. Mass percent equation
    mass percent = g of solute/(g of solute + g of solvent)  x100
  43. Dilution
    • water is added
    • volume increases
    • concentration decreases
  44. Percent concentration equation
    C1V1 = C2V2
  45. Molarity equation (in dilution)
    M1V1 = M2V2
  46. Titration
    techniques used to find an unknown concentration using a standard solution that reacts with the solute in the test solution
  47. Standard solution
    A solution in a titration that has a known concentration
  48. Indicator
    A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
  49. Equivalence point
    point in a titration when a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of base has been added to an acid (or acid to a base)
  50. End point
    point in a titration at which the indicator changes color