Clin Path Test 1

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jill.hinton
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289605
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Clin Path Test 1
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2014-11-19 11:21:04
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clin path vet tech dr moore
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clinical pathology
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  1. Normal rbc count in dog:
    Normal wbc count in dog:
    rbc to wbc ratio:
    • > 6,000,000
    • > 10,000 - 12,000
    • > 500rbc:1wbc
  2. Study of rbc specifically
    hematology
  3. Blood --> viscous fluid made up of fluid and cellular portion.
    --> fluid portion made up of ______ (___%), _______ (minor elements with a charge)
    water (98%), electrolytes
  4. Name the electrolytes found in the blood and their volume (mEq/L)
    • 1. sodium - 145 mEq/L
    • 2. chloride - 110 - 115 mEq/L
    • 3. potassium - 4
    • 4. calcium - 4
    • 5. magnesium - 4
    • 6. phosphate - 4
  5. Difference between lactated ringers and normal saline?
    • N saline> used in people> sodium, chloride
    • lactated ringers> vet md> water and all electrolytes
  6. what is shock?
    movement of blood from the peripheral circulation to the internal circulation to reach the organs
  7. largest organ in the body
    integumentary system
  8. Why do we give fluids during shock?
    • > maintain blood pressure to keep kidneys working so glomerulous of kidney can filter toxins 
    • >when animal die from shock they die from renal failure
  9. How do we get a PCV or Hematocrit?
    • >fill microhematocrit tube 80%
    • >apply clay plug
    • >place in centrifuge for 3 minutes
    • >centrifuge divides blood into fluid portion and cellular portion
  10. Normal PCV:
    >dog
    >cat
    >bovine
    >horse
    • dog> 45 - 40
    • cat> 37
    • bovine> 35
    • horse> CB 35
    • horse> HB 42
  11. Formula for Cellular Respiration
    CH12 O+ 6O= 6CO+ 6H2O + energy>ATP
  12. ____ taking in oxygen using oxygen get rid of CO2 and H2O
    > must have adequate _______ and _______
    • respiration
    • > rbc w/ oxygen and blood flow
  13. Essentials needed for erythropoeisis
    • >erythropoetin
    • >water
    • >B complex vitamins
    • >good quality protein 
    • >Iron (copper and cobalt)
  14. White Blood Cells and their range:
    • band neutrophil> 2-6
    • segmented neutrophil> 60-80
    • lymphocyte> 18-25
    • monocyte> 4-9
    • eosinophil> 0-2
    • basophil> 0-2
  15. RBC morphology

    > splotchy looking, result of rough or improper handling
    > pac-man rbc (horn cell)
    > tear drop
    > produced by toxins and toxicities. Ketchup bottle sticking out of the cell
    > split rbc, fragments - signs of kidney failure
    > always indicator of anemia
    • > crenation
    • > keratocyte
    • > dacrocyte
    • > Heinz Body
    • > schistocyte
    • > target cell
  16. _____ characterized by a low number of rbc> can be seen in a PCV as a low PCV
    Anemic
  17. > % of rbc to total volume of blood
    PCV
  18. The production of RBC, _______, takes place in the _________ along with the production of ____. However, lymphocytes are produced by ____.
    • >erythropoeisis
    • >bone marrow
    • >wbc
    • >lymphoid tissues
  19. Lack of erythropoesis results in _____ being dumped into circulation along with the presence of _______ when the number of RBC decrease.
    reticulocytes, nucleated rbc
  20. The life of a RBC is ______. Then it is pulled out of circulation by the _____ to be stored and reused for erythropoeitin.
    • 120 days
    • spleen
  21. Major thing that encourages rbc production
    • tissue hypoxia - lack of oxygen in the tissue and cells
    • and an increased heart rate
  22. 2 kinds of Anemia:
    • Regenerative anemia
    • Non-Regenerative anemia
  23. > level of erythropoeisis with the presence of reticulocytes is less than needed for the degree if anemia.
    Non-regenerative anemia
  24. Characteristics of regenerative and non-regenerative anemia
    • >reticulocytes, anisocytosis, polychromasia
    • >normocytic and normochromic rbc
  25. 2 situations that may cause a non-regenerative anemia
    • 1. nutrutional deficiency
    • 2. intestinal parasite
  26. 2 ways to classify clinical anemia:
    > rapid onset
    > 72 hrs+, at least 3 days
    acute and chronic
  27. 3 major signs of hemolysis(_____) seen in acute anemia
    > yellowish tinge to the mucus membranes
    > uniformly mixed throughout urine--> not in clumps
    > due to inflammatory response
    • destruction of rbc - spliting
    • >icterus
    • >hemoglobinurea
    • >elevated temp
  28. Classic example of acute anemia
    Leptosporosis
  29. Characteristics of chronic anemia
    >
    > - type of edema in dogs, fluid in the abdomen
    > - machinery shop, wishy washy
    • pale mucus membranes
    • ascites
    • heart murmur
  30. Why does it take 3-4 days after anemia before you start seeing signs of regenerative anemia? and why is this time frame longer in horses?
    • Spleen releases reserves the first 3-4 days
    • > horses have a huge spleen with larger reserve
  31. Signs of regeneration are sufficient enough for the degree or level of anemia
    regenerative anemia
  32. At what point do we consider a blood transfusion in the dog or cat?
    • dog> 12 pcv↓
    • cat> 10 pcv↓
  33. 3 substances toxic to kidneys that can lead to a non-regenerative anemia
    • >antifreeze
    • >anesthesia
    • >heartworm medication
  34. 2 types of regenerative anemias
    • >blood loss anemia
    • >blood destruction anemia
  35. Types of chronic blood loss that lead to blood loss anemia:
    a) tumors, ulcers, neoplasms
    b) ____ bleed into body cavity> occurs over weeks - not 24hr period
    c) ___ or ____ deficiencies
    d) ___ genetic blood pathology, Von Wildebrandt> seen in dobies
    e) diminished number of circulating platelets
    • a) GI lesions/disorders
    • b) neoplasms
    • c) vitamin k/prothrombin
    • d) hemophilia
    • e) thrombocytopenia
  36. DIC(____)> common causes:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    • disseminated intravascular coagulation
    • 1. heartworms
    • 2. heartworm treatment
    • 3. heat stroke
    • 4. idiopathogenic
    • 5. surgery on long bones
  37. Blood sucking parasites seen with blood loss anemia
    a) fleas, ticks, lice
    b) hookworms
    • ectoparasites 
    • endoparasites
  38. Blood sucking endo-parasites seen with blood loss anemia> can treat with ______
    > deadly to the puppy, hookworms
    > in cattle 
    > liver flukes found in cattle. Not deadly but decrease slaughter value - decrease amount of blood available
    > a common factor seen with this parasite is the concrete environment- improper sanitation. ____ should take care of it
    • ivermectin
    • > Ancylostoma caninum
    • > Haemonchus contortus
    • > Fasciola hepatica
    • > coccidia - albon
  39. Allergies, skin problems, and parasites cause an increase in ______ production.
    6 or more could be an indicator of ______.
    • eosinophils
    • heartworms
  40. Bracken fern poisoning leading to acute blood loss anemia
    >> ___ is affected, 

    >>signs:
    • a. (found in cattle)
    • >> a chemical in the plant is a strong anticoagulant 
    • >> signs: bleed from every orifice within hours of consuming
  41. _______poisoning in cattle that leads to an acute blood loss anemia
    >> clover must be _____
    >> chemical is released
    >> signs:
    • Sweet clover poisoning
    • >> damaged
    • >> dicumarin - anticoagulant
    • >> bleeding from every orifice
  42. _____ leads to an acute blood loss anemia
    >>hit by a car
    >>cut/laceration
    >>fight
    >>surgery
    trauma
  43. _____ poisoning can lead to an acute blood loss anemia
    > found in rat poison - warfarin, very deadly - bleeds from every orifice
    dicumarin
  44. _____ anemia seen in regenerative anemias
    >blood destruction
    >rbc hemolysis damage
    hemolytic anemia
  45. Transmissible hemolytic anemias:
    1) blood parasite found in cattle
    >rickettsial parasite --> appearance on a slide:
    a___ b___ c___

    >spread by - 
    >can be ________ - reusing dehoning instruments, ear tag gun, etc w/o proper sanitation before and after
    >blood born - tic
    • Anaplasmosis
    • >a. centrale b. ova c. marginale
    • > one drop of blood
    • > iatrogenically induced
    • > Boophilus annulatus
  46. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    >Protozoan, not a bacteria
    ____ - piroplasmosis bovine (in cattle)
    > vector transmission - _____
    > 1st infection to be proven to be transmitted by an arthropod vector - tic____, fleas____, mosquitoes_____
    • Babesia
    • Bovine babesiosis
    • > tic
    • > babesia, bubonic plague, heart worms (dog) and malaria in people
  47. Signs seen with Babesia
    > Bovine babesiosis
    fever, pale mucus membranes, listless, icterus, hemoglobinurea, malayse, ADR, loss of appetite, anemia
  48. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    Equine babesia
    > causes:
    > 2ndry to initial pathology:
    • Babesia caballi
    • > destruction of rbc, lethargy
    • > pneumoina
  49. Malaria is transmitted by ________ (biological vector)
    >if it is non-living referred to as ______: water bowl
    >to be a _______, part of the life cycle of the pathogen must take place within the insect/2nd party.
    • Anopheles mosquito
    • > fomite
    • > biological vector
  50. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    deadly RNA virus -retrovirus spread by one drop of blood, either by (a)_______, (b)________, or (c)________. 
    >no cure, no vaccine
    >test developed (1970)
    • Equine infectious anemia
    • a) biting flies(vector) b) mosquitoes c) iatrogenically induced
    • >coggins test
  51. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    3 stages of EIA
    1._________
    >>no visible signs of illness. With moderate activity horse still performs normally
    >>clinical signs:
    >>how quickly the horse moves from stage 1 to stage 2 is dependent on---> a)_____ b)______ c)_______ d)_______
    horse can go back and forth between stage 1 and 2 dependent on its general health
    • Chronic stage
    • >> low pcv (34) and +coggins test
    • >> a) nutrition b) parasite load c) increased physical activity d) stress
  52. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    3 stages of EIA
    2._________
    >>start showing signs:
    >>start to stumble
    >>have a fluctuating fever spike
    >>something sets the horse off taking it to the 3rd and final stage>no going back
    • 2. Sub-acute
    • >> low rbc count (N 8mill) of 4mill, gradual anemia, gradual weight loss
    • >>series of temp spikes
  53. Transmissible hemolyitc anemias
    3 stages of EIA
    3._________
    >> very sick, obvious to owner
    >> signs:
    >>death within _____
    • 3. Acute
    • >> high temp that does not relpase, low pcv, extreme weakness, depression, does not eat well, drinks a lot
    • >>death w/i a month
  54. 2 reasons why you never do an in-clinic coggins test:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. Difficult to read, subtle to detect
    • 2. Don't want clinic being liable for misreading the test
  55. Transmissible hemolytic anemia
    >protista
    >1st reported in dogs in Singapore SE Asia (1963) or in _____ (1937)
    >U.S. Army dogs were exposed to this in _______ and had to be euthanized
    >protista, chlamydial --> very high temp
    >signs: 1)_____ 2)______ 3)_____ 4)______
    • Africa
    • Vietnam
    • Ehrlichia canis
    • signs: 1) elevated temp (105°F) 2) limb edema/pitting edema 3) epistaxis (nose bleed) 4) petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhaging
  56. Transmissible hemolytic anemias
    >mycoplasma hemofelis
    >only in cats
    >blood parasite that destroys rbc and causes a regenerative hemolytic anemia
    >signs:
    >stress causes the anemia (scenarios of stress)>
    >treatment:
    • Feline Hemabartonella Felis
    • >signs: pcv very low ↓20, very low hemoglobin (4), may have a temperature
    • >stress: moving, going to clinic (ride), new cat, new baby, changes to the environment
    • >treatment: tetracycline
  57. Toxic hemolytic anemia
    1. Copper poisoning
    >found in _______ in the hay/pasture. Grazing cow is safe.
    >copper builds up in the cow's _____ over time.
    • Colorado
    • liver
  58. What are the dangers associated with fight or flight response in a cow with copper build up in the liver?
    • >stress is the key factor
    • >during a fight or flight response adrenocorticoid steroids are dumped from the adrenal gland to increase heart rate, increase respiration, and gluconeogenesis: liver dumps glycogen along w/ copper toxins into circulation.
  59. Toxins creating hemolytic anemia
    How do we get lead poisoning in dogs?
    >signs:
    >what can we see on a blood smear?
    • lead-based paint
    • >decorative paint, light colors, is lead-based
    • >dog gets a hold of small decorative painted item > drinks from lead-based water bowl
    • >roof shingles
    • signs: "tummy ache", GI problems, anemia, could also be Phenol compounds
    • >blood smear: a lot of target cells and nucleated rbc
  60. How do we get lead poisoning in cattle and horses?
    a.
    b.
    c.
    signs: CNS problems>
    Blood smear:
    • a. discarded truck battery in pasture
    • b. rough tongue "sand paper" - strip paint off barn shed
    • c. horses and humans get lead line on gum line> horses consume hay/pasture contaminated with lead from oil refinery
    • >signs: destruction of rbc, GI problems, colic
    • ---> ataxia, staggering, tetany
    • >reticulocytes, fairly N pcv, nucleated rbc, target cells
  61. Why would snake bite give tetanus to a horse?
    >snake venom causes:
    • >snake mouth is dirty
    • >cold-blooded, bacteria can grow in its mouth (gram+)
    • >icterus, hemolysis, interfere with blood clotting, hemoglobinurea, hemoglobinicterus
  62. How can a snake bite lead gangrene and amputation?
    >gram+ bacteria found in snakes mouth produces a deadly exotoxin in an anaerobic environment that gets into blood stream and causes gangrene - lack of oxygen to the tissue result in necrosis causes gangrene
  63. 2 kinds of gangrene
    >_____ no gram+ bacteria present, lack of exotoxins 
    >_____ anaerobic bacteria produces deadly exotoxins
    • >dry gangrene
    • >moist gangrene
  64. What do we see on a blood smear with AIHA?
    >characteristic cell
    • autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • >anisocytosis, reticulocytes, nucleated rbc, metarubricyte
    • >spherocyte
  65. Parasitic diseases (_____) that are not blood-sucking but can still cause anemia by_____
    • >tapes and rounds
    • >takes the nutrition needed for erythropoeisis
  66. How can damage to the kidneys cause a non-regenerative anemia:
    1.
    >>end stage of renal failure, irreversible kidney damage
    >>specific gravity becomes fixed:
    >>kidney produces_____
    2. Acute kidney damage
    >>
    >>
    • 1. chronic interstitial nephritis 
    • >>1.008 - 1.012, 1.010
    • >>erythropoeitin - hormone used in erythropoeisis
    • 2.
    • >>anesthesia
    • >>anti-freeze poisoning
  67. 3 basic causes of hyperadrenocoticism
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. excessive production of ACTH
    • 2. tumor of adrenal cortex
    • 3. cushings - iatrogenical. long term use of steroids will give you disuse atrophy often leading to

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