BIO 377 CARLA #1

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Author:
tames38
ID:
289623
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BIO 377 CARLA #1
Updated:
2014-11-20 23:03:13
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BIO 377 Exam1 CARLA
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science,medical physiology
Description:
CARLA question set 1 (Exam 1) for BIO 377 (Medical Physiology) at UMaine (Fall 2014).
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  1. In chemical communication between cells, a ______ cell secretes a chemical messenger that binds to _______ on the ________ cell.
    secretory; receptors; target
  2. Direct communication between cells in contact with one another is accomplished through _______.
    gap junctions
  3. Which is the most general type of chemical messenger that is released from one cell and binds to receptors on neighboring cells?
    paracrine
  4. Which type of chemical messenger, when released, binds to receptors on the cell that released the chemical messenger?
    autocrine
  5. Which type of chemical messenger is released into the bloodstream by an endocrine gland where it can affect target cells throughout the body?
    hormone
  6. Which type of chemical messenger is released from the axon terminal of a neuron and directly stimulates other cells?
    neurotransmitter
  7. Communication across a synapse is initiated by the release of a neurotransmitter from the ______ region of a neuron.
    axon terminal
  8. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which is released from the posterior pituitary, is an example of this type of chemical messenger.
    neurohormone
  9. Interleukins and interferons are examples of _______ released from white blood cells.
    cytokines
  10. Which class(es) of chemical messengers move(s) to the target cell by diffusion?
    paracrine & neurotransmitter
  11. Which class(es) of chemical messengers travel(s) in the bloodstream to the target cell?
    hormone
  12. Name a lipophilic chemical messenger.
    prostaglandin
  13. Histamine acts as a(n) _______ in its role in inflammation.
    paracrine (chemical messenger)
  14. Name a chemical messenger NOT derived from an amino acid.
    testosterone
  15. Name a chemical class in which all the messengers function as hormones.
    steroids
  16. Name a chemical messenger that is released by exocytosis.
    catecholamines
  17. Catecholamines are derived from what amino acid?
    tyrosine
  18. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from what amino acid?
    tyrosine
  19. Which class(es) of chemical messengers is/are stored in secretory vesicles?
    catecholamines & peptides/proteins
  20. Once a steroid is synthesized it is ________.

    Hint: What can it do immediately after synthesis?
    immediately capable of diffusing across the membrane
  21. Where in a cell are peptide/protein messengers packaged into secretory vesicles?
    Golgi apparatus
  22. An equilibrium exists between a hormone that is bound to a carrier protein and a free hormone such that, as the amount of free hormone increases, _______.
    more free hormone will become bound to carrier proteins
  23. Hormones that are dissolved in blood typically exhibit a half-life on the order of ______, whereas hormones that are bound to carrier proteins can remain undegraded for ________.
    minutes; hours
  24. The adrenergic receptor has the greatest affinity for ________.
    epinephrine and norepinephrine equally
  25. Chronic exposure to a ligand (messenger) _______ the receptor population for the chemical messenger on the target cell.
    downregulates
  26. Lipophilic hormones are transported in blood ______ and bind to receptors located _______.
    bound to carrier proteins; inside the target cell
  27. A molecule that is similar in structure to a ligand (messenger) that binds with that ligand's receptorto stimulate a response from the target cell is called a(n) _________.
    agonist
  28. The affinity of a receptor for its ligand is a measure of _______.
    the strength of binding between ligand and receptor
  29. _______ describes ion channels that are coupled to membrane receptors such that their gating properties (opening and closing) are altered by messenger binding.
    Ligand-gated channels
  30. Name an ion that can act as a second messenger.
    calcium
  31. Opening channels for which ion can trigger exocytosis?
    calcium
  32. Which ion binds to calmodulin to ultimately activate a protein kinase?
    calcium
  33. The function of a second messenger is to ______.
    amplify the response of the first messenger
  34. In its active form, a G protein will have _______.

    Hint: What is the configuration of its subunits?
    the alpha subunit separated from the gamma and beta subunits
  35. The enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of cAMP is called ______ and is activated by _____.
    adenylate cyclase; a Gs protein
  36. What enzyme is activated by cAMP?
    protein kinase A
  37. In order to terminate a cAMP-mediated response, the enzyme ______ can be activated to degrade cAMP.
    cAMP phosphodiesterase
  38. Which of the following is/are (a) second messenger(s)?

    a. cAMP
    b. calcium
    c. inisitol triphosphate
    All of them
  39. Which chemical messenger(s) communicate(s) over mm or longer distances?
    neurohormones & hormones
  40. Typical responses to ______ messengers require a long time to develop because they necessitate transcription of mRNA and translation of that mRNA into a functional protein.
    lipophilic

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