Psych Quiz #6

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Psych Quiz #6
2014-11-19 17:32:36
ualbany socialpsychology joshisamoho

chapters 10+11
Show Answers:

  1. interpersonal attraction
    desire to approach another individual
  2. proximity
    • physical closeness is critical factor in who we like
    • friends tend to live closer together
  3. familiarity
    • mere exposure hypothesis-repeated exposure to something is sufficient to increase attraction
    • true subliminal effect
  4. anxiety
    • external events can lead people to affiliate, anxiety being the most powerful
    • Schachter (1959) told people the will receive shocks
    •    - "high anxiety" painful shocks
    •    - "low anxiety" virtually painless, a tickle
    •    - 63% high anxiety subjects wanted another person, 33% low anxiety people did
  5. why affiliate
    • people want to keep their mind off of what is happening
    • misery loves miserable company
    • high anxiety want to wait with silent partner
  6. what is the first thing we notice
    attractiveness of others
  7. physical attraction stereotype
    • what is beautiful is good
    • assume attractive people have more socially desirable traits than unattractive people
    • affects salary b/t attractive and unattractive people
  8. physical attraction and babies
    • more attractive children are punished less
    • babies displayed more positive affect when they played with an attractive than an unattractive stranger
    • ex: babies hate josh gerstein
  9. Snyder (1997)
    • men talk to women on phone
    • given pics of attractive or unattractive people
    • men that talked to people who they thought were attractive appeared more outgoing and sociable
  10. culture and physical beauty
    • within culture and time frame, people typically agree on attractiveness
    • ex: weight, tanning, etc.
  11. contrast effect
    • people are judged more attractive after viewing an unattractive target and vice versa
    • stronger in men than women
    • women asked to judge themselves after viewing attractive or unattractive men and women, same sex had more effect on them
  12. interaction between situation and characteristics
    • sometimes attraction depends on the match (or mismatch) b/t our personal characteristics and the situation
    • ex: want beauty, know our limitations
    • people similar in attractiveness are more likely to date, get married, stay married
  13. similarity
    we like people with similar backgrounds
  14. attitudinal similarity
    we like people with similar attitudes
  15. why are similar others attractive
    • social comparison: other people validate our view points
    • familiarity: we like what is familiar
    • balance theory: people desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts and feelings
  16. mismatches and attraction
    • rarely opposite attitudes are more attractive
    • dominants are more satisfied interacting with submissive people rather than dominant
  17. love styles
  18. eros
    • my lover and I were attracted to each other immediately after we first met
    • our love making is very intense and satisfying
    • my lover fits my ideal standards of physical beauty
  19. ludus
    • I try to keep my lover a little uncertain about my commitment to him/her.
    • I have sometimes had to keep two of
    • my lovers from finding out about each other.
    • I enjoy playing the “game of love” with a number of different partners.
  20. storge
    • It is hard to say exactly when my lover and I fell in love (Our friendship merged gradually into love over time).
    • Love is really a deep friendship, not a mysterious, mystical emotion.
    • My most satisfying love relationships have developed from good friendships
  21. pragma
    • I consider what a person is going to become in life before I commit myself to him/her.
    • I try to play my life carefully before choosing a lover.
    • A main consideration in choosing a lover is how he/she reflects on my family
  22. mania
    • Sometimes I get so excited about being in love that I can’t sleep.
    • When I am in love, I have trouble concentrating on anything else.
    • If my lover ignores me for a while, I sometimes do stupid things to get his/her attention back
  23. agape
    • I would rather suffer myself than let my lover suffer.
    • I cannot be happy unless I place my lover’s happiness before my own.
    • I would endure all things for the sake of my lover
  24. triangular theory of love
    • passion
    • commitment
    • intimacy
  25. passion
    • an intense longing for union with another
    • may be due to attribution of arousal
    • see partner as perfect and ideal
    • experienced most intensely early in the relationship
  26. intimacy or companionate love
    • more certain and dependable type of love
    • see partner in a more realistic light, although in good relationships still see imperfections in the best possible light
    • trust is critical in this
  27. commitment
    • a decision to stay together both short term and long term
    • only component under cognitive control
    •    - accommodation
    •    - effects on perceiving other's attractiveness
  28. course of relationships
    • starting relationships
    • maintaining relationships
    • ending relationships
  29. starting relationships
    • major goal in the beginning of a relationship is to gain knowledge about the other person
    • we believe the other person has more power to determine the outcome than we do
  30. information seeking
    • we have various ways of seeking information about a potential partner
    • three ways to gather information: active, passive, and interactive
    • flirting is a key means of gathering information
  31. disclosure
    • main way to develop and deepen a relationship is though self-disclosure
    • self-disclosure: the revealing of personal information about oneself to other people
    • people who do not disclose tend to have dysfunctional relationships and are lonelier than people who disclose
  32. social penetration theory
    development of a relationship involves gradual change in discussion from superficial topics to more intimate issues
  33. maintaining relationships
    • attachment theory (personality and relationships)
    • equity (are you happy, who is guilty)
    • partner-enhancing biases (seeing each other in the best possible light)
  34. attachment theory
    • attachment is the strong emotional bond between two individuals (originally mother and baby, generalized to adult relationships)
    • Ainsworth (1989) identified three types of attachment styles based on the relationship between infants and their mothers
  35. attachment styles
  36. attachment and relationships
    • secure-secure couples are attracted to each other and have most stable relationship
    • avoidant-secure and anxious-secure parings are less stable than secure-secure relationships
    • insecure attachments (anxious-anxious and avoidant-avoidant relationships) are almost never seen
  37. equity theory
    • how rewards and costs are analyzed in intimate relationships
    • people don't try to maximize rewards and minimize costs but instead want ratio of rewards and costs to be equal for both partners
  38. results of equity theory
    • partner who is over-benefited should feel guilty
    • partner who is under-benefited should feel angry and depressed
  39. partner enhancing biases
    • we are meaner to those we love than we are to strangers
    • married people were more polite and agreeable when working with strangers than with their spouse
  40. attributions for negative and positive events
    • In unhappy couples, positive behaviors are ignored or discounted and negative behaviors are reciprocated
    • Happy couples avoid this; see their partner’s behavior in the most positive light and discount negative actions
  41. positive illusions
    • people tend to see their partners are more positively than the partner viewed him or herself
    • seeing one's partner in the best possible light was related to relationship satisfaction for both people
  42. process of ending relationships
    • intrapsychic
    • dyadic
    • social
    • grave dressing
  43. costs of ending relationships
    • ending relationships is harder on men than women and harder on people and in cultures with weaker social support networks
    • breakees are more miserable than breakers whereas mutual break ups fell in the middle
  44. aggression
    a behavior aimed at causing physical or psychological harm to another
  45. types of aggression
    • hostile: intended to harm (hot)
    • instrumental: means to an end (cold)
  46. two forms of aggression
    • direct
    • indirect
  47. innate: evolutionary evidence
    • fight for limited resource and partners
    • mat explain why men are more aggressive than women
    • women use more indirect aggression to protect their own lives
  48. innate: genetic evidence
    • can breed animals to be passive or aggressive
    • twins closely matched in aggression
    • adoptive children match their biological parents in aggression
  49. innate: biochemical
    • testosterone
    • correlations in many populations between testosterone and aggression
    • experimental administration of testosterone is rare; one study of transsexual indicated testosterone may be a cause of aggression
    • serotonin levels related to aggression
  50. innate: evidence against
    • cats raised with rats won't even kill rats they weren't raised with
    • levels of aggression changes over time and in different societies
    • correlation between testosterone and aggression is small; may be a product need to dominate
  51. learning violent behavior
    • correlational evidence
    •    - watching violent TV predicts childhood violence
    •    - this increases over time
    • correlation isn't causation
  52. experiments on social learning
  53. situational effects on aggression
    • frustration-aggression hypothesis
    •    - frustration: interrupting a person's progress      toward a goal
    •    - this emotion increases the drive to aggress
    • frustration builds over time and needs to be released
  54. aggression: negative affect
    • instead of uncomfortable feelings lead to aggression when:
    •    - arousal is high
    •    - reminded of aggression
    •    - person does't override basic urges
  55. triggers of aggression
    • negative affect
    • arousal
    • aggressive related thoughts
  56. alcohol and pro-social behaviors
    • relaxation
    • social disinhibition 
    • increased helping and altruism 
    • some medical benefits with moderate consumption
  57. mechanisms of Alcohol's effects
    • pharmacological effects
    •    - alcohol leads to behavioral disinhibition
    • expectancy effects
    •    - alcohol as a self-fulfilling prophecy
  58. is alcohol just expectations
    • pharmacological effect
    •    - narrow attention
    •    - focuses attention
    • draws attention toward very salient cues of the social environment
  59. alcohol and aggression
    • expectations > aggression
    • salient cues > aggression
    • in summary , even the negative effects of alcohol can have social determinates